This document describes a set of principles, guidelines, and requirements for the preparation of bibliographic references and citations in works that are not themselves primarily bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations for all kinds of information resources, including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions within monographs and serials, patents, cartographic materials, artworks, performances and diverse electronic resources, such as research datasets, databases, programs and applications, Web archives and social media, music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audio-visual materials, archival sources and moving images. This document provides a system for citing information resources that renders deterministic output, such that a citation generated by this system can be uniquely mapped back to the originally defined set of source elements. This system is intended to be applicable across multiple languages. Citations generated by this system are machine-parseable. The citation system described in this document can be used as a configurable framework for building citation styles. This document does not specify a data model for machine‑readable citations, although such specification may be provided in a separate document or added to a later edition of ISO 690. Guidelines for legal citations, such as references to cases, statutes or treatises, are not addressed in this document, since such guidelines are usually country-specific1. Recommendations with regards to what kind of information resources may or may not be cited, or describing the risks involved with, for example, citing social media, are not within the scope of this document2.  1 For example, the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation, and Bluebook, are commonly used in the USA depending on jurisdiction acceptance. 2 Academic institutions or scientific publishers may not accept references for some information resources such as Wikipedia articles for research papers and other scientific documents.

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This document defines and promotes the use of a standard code (ISSN) for the unique identification of serials and other continuing resources. Each International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a unique identifier for a serial or other continuing resource in a defined medium whether print or electronic. This document also allows for grouping related continuing resources into clusters identified by a separately-prefixed ISSN as defined in this document. ISSNs are applicable to serials and to other continuing resources, whatever the business model or modes of distribution (e.g. free, open access, on subscription, etc.) and irrespective of whether the serial is currently in publication, has ceased publication, or publication is planned for the foreseeable future. Continuing resources include whatever the medium of production (print or electronic): — serials, such as newspapers, periodicals, journals, magazines, conference proceedings, monographic series with no predetermined conclusion, annual or other periodic reports, and — ongoing integrating resources that are updated, such as loose-leaf publications, updating websites, blogs, institutional repositories, directories and databases. Monographs, sound and video recordings, notated music publications, audiovisual works, textual works and musical works have their own standard identifiers and are not specifically mentioned in this document. Such items can carry an ISSN in addition to their appropriate identifiers when they are part of a continuing resource. NOTE This document does not contain any operational guidance for its practical implementation.

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This document provides an effective presentation of rights information in digital collections to end-users. Digital collection, in this document, is mainly focused on digital collections in libraries, museums, archives or other organizations that offer similar resources to their patrons. This document deals with the human-readable aspects of the rights presentation. Technical aspects of the storage and management of rights expression information, such as, metadata schemas, interoperability of machine-readable expressions and user interfaces are out of scope of this document.

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This document specifies the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) for the unique identification of recordings. The ISRC is applicable to the identification of audio recordings and music video recordings whether they are in analogue or digital form. The ISRC is not applicable to the numbering of audio or audiovisual products or carriers. Neither is it applicable to the numbering of packages of audio recordings or music video recordings with other media items. The ISRC is applicable to music video recordings even if they have been assigned an International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) in accordance with ISO 15706 (all parts), or a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in accordance with ISO 26324, but it is not applicable to other forms of audiovisual recording.

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ISO 20247:2018 specifies the International Library Item Identifier (ILII), which is used for the unique identification of items held by libraries and related organizations. "Library and related organization" here refers to an organization within the scope of ISO 15511. "Items" here refer to materials identified and managed by a concerned organization. The purpose of ILII is to facilitate unique identification of library items when information about them is shared among library applications. Examples of such system(s) include interlibrary loans and shared print agreements.

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ISO 2108:2017 establishes the specifications for the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) as a unique international identification system for each product form or edition of a separately available monographic publication published or produced by a specific publisher that is available to the public. It specifies the construction of an ISBN, the rules for its assignment and use, the metadata to be associated with the ISBN allocation, and the administration of the ISBN system. ISO 2108:2017 is applicable to monographic publications (books), not to textual works (content). Monographic publications include individual sections or chapters where these are made separately available and certain types of related products that are available to the public irrespective of whether those publications are made available for sale or on a gratis basis. Examples of applicable and non-applicable products are provided in Annex A. NOTE More detailed, operational guidance is provided in the latest version of the Users' Manual available from the Registration Authority for this document (see Clause 7).

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ISO 17316:2014 specifies an identifier of links between entities (or their names) in the field of information and documentation. These entities can be documents, media resources, people, or more abstract items such as times or places. The ISLI system identifies links between entities that are related to each other so that, for instance, they can be rendered jointly. It does this by registering each link identifier with information (metadata) that specifies the link. The ISLI does not change the content, ownership, right of access, or existing identification of these entities. This International Standard does not specify the technology used to represent the identifier or realize the link. It enables applications to be built which use the interoperable ISLI system for the identification of links.

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ISO 25964-2:2013 is applicable to thesauri and other types of vocabulary that are commonly used for information retrieval. It describes, compares and contrasts the elements and features of these vocabularies that are implicated when interoperability is needed. It gives recommendations for the establishment and maintenance of mappings between multiple thesauri, or between thesauri and other types of vocabularies.

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ISO 26324:2012 specifies the syntax, description and resolution functional components of the digital object identifier system, and the general principles for the creation, registration and administration of DOI names (where DOI is an acronym for "digital object identifier"). ISO 26324:2012 defines the syntax for a DOI name, which is used for the identification of an object of any material form (digital or physical) or an abstraction (such as a textual work) where there is a functional need to distinguish it from other objects. The DOI name does not replace, nor is it an alternative for, an identifier used in another scheme, such as the schemes defined by ISO/TC 46/SC 9. ISO 26324:2012 describes how the DOI system can be used in conjunction with another identifier scheme (for example, to provide additional functionality, such as resolution, where this is not already available), and how the character string of that other scheme can be integrated into the DOI system through the DOI metadata record and/or the DOI syntax. ISO 26324:2012 does not specifies specific technologies to implement the syntax, description and resolution functional components of the digital object identifier system.

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This International Standard establishes the specifications for the International Standard Collection Identifier (ISCI) as a unique international identification system for each collection, fonds and (archival) series, and part(s) of collections, fonds and series. This International Standard establishes the specifications for the structure of an identifier and promotes the use of the identifier with regard to identifying systems that already exist. It also gives a list of recommended metadata elements that describe a collection. This International Standard does not specify the description of collections, fonds and series, nor the relationships between collections and sub-collections. The ISCI is intended for use by organizations that manage collections of cultural materials. These include cultural heritage institutions such as libraries, museums and archives, as well as other types of organizations such as publishers operating in the supply chain of cultural materials.

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ISO 27729:2012 specifies the International Standard name identifier (ISNI) for the identification of public identities of parties, i.e. the identities used publicly by parties involved throughout the media content industries in the creation, production, management and content distribution chains. The ISNI system uniquely identifies public identities across multiple fields of creative activity and provides a tool for disambiguating public identities that might otherwise be confused. The ISNI is not intended to provide direct access to comprehensive information about a public identity but can provide links to other systems where such information is held.

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ISO 25964-1:2011 gives recommendations for the development and maintenance of thesauri intended for information retrieval applications. It is applicable to vocabularies used for retrieving information about all types of information resources, irrespective of the media used (text, sound, still or moving image, physical object or multimedia) including knowledge bases and portals, bibliographic databases, text, museum or multimedia collections, and the items within them. ISO 25964-1:2011 also provides a data model and recommended format for the import and export of thesaurus data. ISO 25964-1:2011 is applicable to monolingual and multilingual thesauri. ISO 25964-1:2011 is not applicable to the preparation of back-of-the-book indexes, although many of its recommendations could be useful for that purpose. ISO 25964-1:2011 is not applicable to the databases or software used directly in search or indexing applications, but does anticipate the needs of such applications among its recommendations for thesaurus management.

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ISO 690:2010 gives guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references. It also gives guidelines for the preparation of citations in Latin scripts in works that are not themselves primarily bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations to all kinds of information resources, including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images. It is not applicable to machine‑parsable citations. It is also not applicable to legal citations, which have their own standards. ISO 690:2010 does not prescribe a particular style of reference or citation. The examples used in ISO 690:2010 are not prescriptive as to style and punctuation. Explanations and examples of bibliographic references are also given in ISO 690:2010 to illustrate how to apply the requirements for referencing or citing printed and electronic information resources.

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ISO 10957:2009 specifies the International standard music number (ISMN), which is a means of uniquely identifying editions of notated music. It specifies the assignment of a unique ISMN on such editions so as to distinguish one edition of a title or one separate component of an edition from all other editions. ISO 10957:2009 also specifies the construction of an ISMN and its location on editions of notated music. ISO 10957:2009 is applicable to editions of notated music. The ISMN can also be used to identify editions of notated music that are presented with other media to form an integrated whole (e.g. an edition that, together with a sound recording, forms a single product). The ISMN is not suitable for the identification of material in other media that are issued separately, such as sound or audiovisual products (e.g. CDs or DVDs), for which other standards such as ISO 3901 (International Standard Recording Code) and ISO 15706 (International Standard Audiovisual Number) are applicable. The ISMN is not suitable for the identification of the products themselves (CDs or DVDs), for which the European article numbering (EAN) 13-digit bar code can be used.

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ISO 21047 specifies the International Standard Text Code (ISTC) which is applicable to any textual work, whenever there is an intention to produce such a textual work in the form of one or more manifestations. It provides an identification data element for applications that record and exchange information about textual works and related manifestations. For example, the ISTC can be used for the purposes of collocating subsequent manifestations of the same textual work or derivations of the same textual work in applications involving electronic rights administration or information retrieval. The ISTC is not applicable to manifestations of a textual work, including any physical products (e.g. a printed article) or electronic formats (e.g. an electronic book). Manifestations of textual works are the subject of separate identification systems.

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ISO 15706-1:2002 establishes and defines a voluntary standard numbering system for the unique and international identification of audiovisual works. An International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) identifies an audiovisual work throughout its life and is intended for use wherever precise and unique identification of an audiovisual work would be desirable. As an identifier, it may be used for various purposes, such as to assist allocation of royalties among right holders, to track the use of audiovisual works, for information retrieval and for anti-piracy purposes, such as verifying title registrations. The ISAN can also provide a basis for supplementary identification systems when version or product information is required (e.g. for applications such as broadcast automation and automated storage and retrieval systems). An ISAN should apply to the audiovisual work itself. It should not be related to the physical medium of such an audiovisual work, or the identification of that medium. The issuance of an ISAN should in no way be related to any process of copyright registration, nor should the issuance of an ISAN provide evidence of the ownership of rights in an audiovisual work.

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ISO 15706-2:2007 establishes a voluntary system for the identification of versions of audiovisual works and other content derived from or closely related to an audiovisual work. It is based on the International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) system defined in ISO 15706:2002. An ISAN combined with the version segment, as specified in ISO 15706-2:2007 constitutes an ISAN version identifier, is referred to as a V-ISAN. A V-ISAN is a registered, globally unique identifier for versions of an audiovisual work and related content. A V-ISAN identifies a specific version or other content related to an audiovisual work throughout its life. It is intended for use wherever precise and unique identification of a specific version or other content related to an audiovisual work would be desirable, such as in audiovisual production and distribution systems, broadcasting applications and electronic program guides. A V-ISAN identifies a specific version or other content related to an audiovisual work as the unique compound of its component elements (e.g. its artistic content, languages, editing and technical format) throughout its life and independent of any physical form in which that version or related content is distributed. The assignment of a V-ISAN to a version or other content related to an audiovisual work does not constitute evidence of the ownership of rights to either that version or related content or to the audiovisual work itself. ISO 15706-2:2007 specifies the basic systems and procedures to support the issuance and administration of V-ISANs.

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ISO 15706:2002 establishes and defines a voluntary standard numbering system for the unique and international identification of audiovisual works. An International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) identifies an audiovisual work throughout its life and is intended for use wherever precise and unique identification of an audiovisual work would be desirable. As an identifier, it may be used for various purposes, such as to assist allocation of royalties among right holders, to track the use of audiovisual works, for information retrieval and for anti-piracy purposes, such as verifying title registrations. The ISAN can also provide a basis for supplementary identification systems when version or product information is required (e.g. for applications such as broadcast automation and automated storage and retrieval systems). An ISAN should apply to the audiovisual work itself. It should not be related to the physical medium of such an audiovisual work, or the identification of that medium. The issuance of an ISAN should in no way be related to any process of copyright registration, nor should the issuance of an ISAN provide evidence of the ownership of rights in an audiovisual work.

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This International Standard specifies a means of uniquely identifying a musical work. It standardizes and promotes internationally the use of a standard identification code so that musical works can be uniquely distinguished from one another within computer databases and related documentation and for the purposes of collecting societies involved in the administration of rights to such works. The International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) identifies musical works as intangible creations. It is not used to identify manifestations of or objects related to a musical work. Such manifestations and objects are the subject of separate identification systems, such as the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) for sound recordings, the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) for printed music, and the International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) for audiovisual works. Guidelines for the use of ISWC are given in normative annex A.

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This International Standard gives rules for abbreviating titles of serials and, if appropriate, non-serial documents in languages using the Latin, Cyrillic and Greek alphabets. This International Standard also serves as the basis for the establishment of title word abbreviations by the ISSN Network.

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Provides guidelines for the arrangement and presentation of catalogues of standards, or publications similar to standards, in order to facilitate their use.

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Gives guidelines for the content, arrangement and presentation of indexes to books, periodicals, reports, patent documents and other written documents, also to non-print materials, such as electronic documents, films, sound and video recordings.

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Cancels and replaces the first edition (1975). Specifies rules for the abbreviation of words and word combinations that commonly appear in bibliographic descriptions and references in languages using the Latin, Cyrillic and Greek alphabets. Abbreviations of titles and title words are excluded.

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Describes general techniques for document analysis which should apply in all indexing situations. These techniques can be employed by any agency in which human indexers analyse the subjects of documents and express these subjects in indexing terms. Is intended to promote standard practice within an agency or network of agencies as well as between different indexing agencies, especially those which exchange bibliographic records.

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ISO 3297:2017 defines and promotes the use of a standard code (ISSN) for the unique identification of serials and other continuing resources. Each International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a unique identifier for a specific serial or other continuing resource in a defined medium. ISO 3297:2017 also describes a mechanism, the "linking ISSN (ISSN-L)", that provides for collocation or linking among the different media versions of the same continuing resource. ISSN are applicable to serials and to other continuing resources, whether past, present or to be published or produced in the foreseeable future, whatever the medium of publication or production. Individual monographs, sound and video recordings, printed music publications, audiovisual works and musical works have their own numbering systems and are not specifically mentioned in ISO 3297:2017. Such items may carry an ISSN in addition to their own standard numbers when they are part of a continuing resource. More detailed operational guidance is provided in the ISSN Manual available from the Registration Authority for ISO 3297:2017 (see Clause 11).

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ISO 3297:2007 defines and promotes the use of a standard code (ISSN) for the unique identification of serials and other continuing resources. Each International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a unique identifier for a specific serial or other continuing resource in a defined medium. ISO 3297:2007 also describes a mechanism, the “linking ISSN (ISSN-L),” that provides for collocation or linking among the different media versions of the same continuing resource. ISSN are applicable to serials and to other continuing resources, whether past, present or to be published or produced in the foreseeable future, whatever the medium of publication or production. Individual monographs, sound and video recordings, printed music publications, audiovisual works and musical works have their own numbering systems and are not specifically mentioned in ISO 3297:2007. Such items may carry an ISSN in addition to their own standard numbers when they are part of a continuing resource. More detailed operational guidance is provided in the ISSN Manual available from the Registration Authority for ISO 3297:2007.

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The purpose of ISO 2108:2005 is to establish the specifications for the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) as a unique international identification system for each product form or edition of a monographic publication published or produced by a specific publisher. It specifies the construction of an ISBN, the rules for its assignment and use, the metadata to be associated with the ISBN allocation, and the administration of the ISBN system. ISO 2108:2005 is applicable to monographic publications (or their individual sections or chapters where these are made separately available) and certain types of related products that are available to the public. Examples of applicable and non-applicable products are provided.

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The business and information architectures outlined in ISO/TR 21449:2004 are designed specifically to assist organizations involved in the development and administration of identification and description schemas for intellectual content and products in understanding the relationships between their organizations and other content industry players involved in production, distribution, and rights management. ISO/TR 21449:2004 does not preclude the possibility of other perspectives on the same environments or other business and information architectures designed to serve other purposes. The functional requirements for identifiers and descriptors set out in ISO/TR 21449:2004 are centred on intra- and inter-industry business transactions relating to production, distribution, and rights management in the content industries (i.e., the music, film, video, sound recording and publishing industries). The information model presented in ISO/TR 21449:2004 is focussed specifically on the requirements of the originators, producers, distributors, registration authorities, and rights administrators involved in the development and delivery of intellectual and artistic content. It does not reflect business functions such as marketing and archiving, nor does it directly reflect transactions between secondary service providers such as libraries, archives and museums.

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Defines and promotes the use of a standard number (ISRN) for the unique identification of technical reports. The ISRN specifies a uniform format for the creation of unique, but compatible, numbers used for the identification, organization and location of technical reports. Applies to publicly distributed and in-house technical reports including those produced in non-print media.

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Specifies a means of uniquely identifying printed music publications. Standardizes and promotes internationally the use of numbers on printed music publications in order that one edition of a title or one separate component of an edition can be distinguished from all other editions or components by means of a unique international standard music number made up of the following elements: preceded by the letters ISMN, the letter M as a prefix, a publisher identifier, an item identifier, a check digit. Also specifies the location of the number on printed music publications.

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The purpose is to coordinate and standardize the use of identifying numbers so that each international standard book number is unique to a title or edition of a book or other monographic publication (serial publications excluded) published or produced by a specific publisher or producer. The standard specifies the construction of an ISBN and the location of the printed number on the publication.

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Specifies the elements to be included in bibliographic references to published monographs and serials, to chapters, articles, etc. in such publications and to patent documents. Sets out a prescribed order for the elements of the reference and establishes conventions for the transcription and presentation of information derived from the source publication.

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The recommendations are intended to ensure consistent practice within a single indexing agency, or between different agencies (for example members of a network). These recommendations relate to monolingual thesauri, without reference to the special requirements of multilingual thesauri.

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Is intended to define and promote the use of a standard code (ISRC) for the unique identification of recordings or parts of a recording. Guidelines for the use of the ISRC are given in the annex. The ISRC has been prepared to provide a means of identifying audio, video or audio-video recordings internationally. It is not to be used for the numbering of audio, vidio or audio-video carriers.

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Should be used in conjunction with ISO 2788, and regarded as an extension of the scope of the monolingual guidelines. The majority of procedures and recommendations contained in ISO 2788 are equally valid for a multilingual thesaurus. This applies particularly to general procedures, for example, the forms of terms, the basic thesaural relationships, and management operations such a evaluation and maintenance. Distinction is made between preferred terms and non-preferred terms.

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