Information and documentation -- Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources

ISO 690:2010 gives guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references. It also gives guidelines for the preparation of citations in Latin scripts in works that are not themselves primarily bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations to all kinds of information resources, including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images. It is not applicable to machine‑parsable citations. It is also not applicable to legal citations, which have their own standards. ISO 690:2010 does not prescribe a particular style of reference or citation. The examples used in ISO 690:2010 are not prescriptive as to style and punctuation. Explanations and examples of bibliographic references are also given in ISO 690:2010 to illustrate how to apply the requirements for referencing or citing printed and electronic information resources.

Information et documentation -- Principes directeurs pour la rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des ressources d'information

L'ISO 690:2010 donne des principes directeurs pour la rédaction des références bibliographiques. Elle donne également des principes directeurs pour la rédaction en caractčres latins de citations destinées ŕ figurer dans des ouvrages qui ne sont pas eux-męmes de nature essentiellement bibliographique. Elle s'applique aux références bibliographiques et aux citations de ressources de tous types y compris, mais sans limitation, aux monographies, aux publications en série, aux contributions, aux brevets, aux documents cartographiques, aux ressources électroniques (y compris les logiciels et les bases de données), ŕ la musique, au son enregistré, aux estampes, aux photographies, aux œuvres graphiques et audiovisuelles et aux images animées. Elle ne s'applique pas aux citations analysables par une machine. Elle ne s'applique pas aux citations réglementaires qui disposent de leurs propres normes. L'ISO 690:2010 ne donne aucune consigne de mise en forme des références ou des citations. Le style et la ponctuation utilisés dans les exemples donnés dans l'ISO 690:2010 n'ont pas de caractčre normatif. Des explications et des exemples de références bibliographiques sont également donnés dans l'ISO 690:2010 afin d'illustrer l'application des exigences relatives ŕ l'établissement des références et des citations de ressources imprimées et électroniques.

Informatika in dokumentacija - Smernice za bibliografske navedbe in citiranje virov informacij

Ta mednarodni standard podaja smernice za pripravo bibliografskih navedb. Prav tako podaja smernice za pripravo citiranja v latinici v delih, ki sama niso v osnovi bibliografska. Velja za bibliografske navedbe in citiranje vseh vrst virov informacij, vključno, vendar ne omejeno na monografije, periodiko, članke, javne razglase, kartografske materiale, elektronske vire informacij (vključno z računalniško programsko opremo in podatkovne zbirke), glasbo, posneti zvok, tiskovine, fotografije, grafična in avdiovizualna dela ter gibljive slike.  Ne velja za citiranja, ki se jih lahko strojno analizira. Prav tako ne velja za pravna citiranje, ki imajo svoje standarde. Ta mednarodni standard ne predpisuje določenega stila navedb in citiranja. Primeri, uporabljeni v tem mednarodnem standardu, ne predpisujejo stila in postavljanja ločil. Dodatka A in B se sklicujeta na ustrezne klavzule tega mednarodnega standarda, ki obrazložijo zahteve za navajanje ali citiranje tiskanih ali elektronskih virov informacij. Dodatek C podaja primere bibliografskega citiranja, ki so skladni s tem mednarodnim standardom.

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
13-Jun-2010
Withdrawal Date
13-Jun-2010
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
14-Jun-2010

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 690
Third edition
2010-06-15
Information and documentation —
Guidelines for bibliographic references
and citations to information resources
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la rédaction
des références bibliographiques et des citations des ressources
d'information
Reference number
ISO 690:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2010

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 Basic principles for creating references.............................................................................................3

4 Elements of a reference........................................................................................................................3

4.1 Sources of data......................................................................................................................................3

4.2 Transliteration........................................................................................................................................4

4.3 Abbreviation...........................................................................................................................................4

4.4 Punctuation and typography................................................................................................................4

4.5 Order of elements..................................................................................................................................4

5 Creator....................................................................................................................................................5

5.1 Selection.................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Personal names .....................................................................................................................................5

5.3 Organizations or groups.......................................................................................................................6

5.4 Multiple creators....................................................................................................................................7

5.5 Pseudonyms ..........................................................................................................................................8

5.6 Anonymous works ................................................................................................................................9

6 Title .........................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 Form of title............................................................................................................................................9

6.2 Translation of title ...............................................................................................................................11

6.3 Titles of serials ....................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Distinction between title of contribution and title of host item ......................................................12

6.5 Conferences.........................................................................................................................................12

7 Medium designation............................................................................................................................12

8 Edition...................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Different editions .................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Updated versions ................................................................................................................................13

9 Production............................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Place .....................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Publisher or alternative.......................................................................................................................14

9.3 Date.......................................................................................................................................................14

10 Numeration and pagination................................................................................................................16

10.1 General .................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Part cited ..............................................................................................................................................16

10.3 Omission of terms ...............................................................................................................................16

11 Series title and number.......................................................................................................................16

12 Identifiers..............................................................................................................................................17

13 Location................................................................................................................................................17

14 Additional general information ..........................................................................................................17

14.1 General .................................................................................................................................................17

14.2 Classification .......................................................................................................................................17

14.3 Size........................................................................................................................................................17

14.4 Price and availability...........................................................................................................................18

14.5 Languages............................................................................................................................................18

14.6 Registered trade mark.........................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 690:2010(E)

14.7 Other information.................................................................................................................................18

15 Specific categories of information resource ....................................................................................18

15.1 General..................................................................................................................................................18

15.2 Electronic information resources or parts and contributions thereof ...........................................18

15.3 Computer software ..............................................................................................................................20

15.4 Audiovisual material............................................................................................................................21

15.5 Cartographic material..........................................................................................................................21

15.6 Films, videos and broadcasts ............................................................................................................22

15.7 Graphic works......................................................................................................................................23

15.8 Music.....................................................................................................................................................23

15.9 Patents ..................................................................................................................................................23

15.10 Reports in series, standards and similar publications....................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Methods of citation .....................................................................................................25

Annex B (informative) Presentation of references.........................................................................................28

Annex C (informative) Examples of bibliographic references......................................................................33

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................40

iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 690 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 9, Identification and description.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of ISO 690:1987 and the first edition of

ISO 690-2:1997 of which the entire texts have been amalgamated and technically revised.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 690:2010(E)
Information and documentation — Guidelines for bibliographic
references and citations to information resources
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references. It also gives

guidelines for the preparation of citations in Latin scripts in works that are not themselves primarily

bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations to all kinds of information resources,

including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic

information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints,

photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images. It is not applicable to machine-parsable

citations. It is also not applicable to legal citations, which have their own standards.

This International Standard does not prescribe a particular style of reference or citation. The examples used in

this International Standard are not prescriptive as to style and punctuation.

Annexes A and B make reference to the relevant clause(s) of this International Standard which explain the

requirements for referencing or citing printed and electronic information resources. Annex C gives examples of

bibliographic references that comply with this International Standard.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
call number

reference provided to enable the custodian to locate a resource within a repository

2.2
citation
indication within the text or other form of content of a relevant reference
2.3
computer program

schedule or plan that specifies actions expressed in a form suitable for execution by a computer

[ISO/TR 9544:1988]
2.4
contribution
item provided by a creator to form part of a host resource from several creators
EXAMPLE An article in a serial.
2.5
creator
entity primarily responsible for making the resource
[ISO 15836:2009]
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 690:2010(E)
2.6
database

collection of data objects stored together in electronic form, according to one schema, and made accessible

by computer

NOTE Some databases, or files within a database, can also constitute a monograph or serial publication. In cases

where it can readily be determined that a specific electronic resource is a monograph or serial, those terms are preferred

over the broader term “database”.
2.7
graphic works

graphics such as photographs (including negatives and transparencies), engravings, prints, drawings, wall

charts, etc.
2.8
key title

unique name for a continuing resource, established by the ISSN Network and inseparably linked with its ISSN

[ISO 3297:2007]
2.9
landscape

orientation of a page with the longer edge running horizontally when it is in reading position

2.10
map series

number of related map sheets designed to form a single group, normally distinguishable by such common

characteristics as a collective title, a sheet-numbering system and the same scale

NOTE Normally a map series is the work of one mapping agency.
2.11
map height
vertical measurement of a map when the map is in reading position
2.12
map series designation

coded numeric or alphanumeric identification applied to a map sheet, a map series or an atlas by the

publisher
2.13
monograph

publication in print or non-print form, complete in itself or intended to be completed in a finite number of parts

2.14
neat line
a line separating the body of a map from the map margin
2.15
reference

data describing a resource or part thereof, sufficiently precise and detailed to identify it and to enable it to be

located

NOTE A reference can be: part of a list of information resources; the heading of an abstract or a critical review; a

note appended to a text, either at the foot of the page or at the end of a text; or a statement embodied in the text.

2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
2.16
serial

publication in print or non-print form, issued in successive parts, usually having numerical or chronological

designations, and intended to be continued indefinitely, whatever the periodicity

NOTE Serials can include periodicals, journals, newspapers, annuals, etc.
2.17
series

group of monographs, serials or other publications sharing a common title, and possibly numbered

3 Basic principles for creating references

3.1 The information included in a reference should be sufficient to clearly identify the material being cited.

3.2 The creator of the reference should determine the appropriate level of specificity at which the reference

is made (e.g. to an entire document or to a specific part of a document) based on the purposes of the citation

and the use that was made of the material being cited.

3.3 The data included in a reference should, whenever possible, be taken from the information resource

being cited.

3.4 The data recorded in the reference should reflect the specific copy or instance of the document that was

used. For online documents that are subject to change, such data include the network location of the

particular version that was used and the date on which the document was accessed.

3.5 A uniform style, format and punctuation scheme shall be used for all references in a document,

regardless of the particular style guide being used.
4 Elements of a reference
4.1 Sources of data
4.1.1 General

The data used in a reference should, if possible, be taken from the cited information resource itself. An

eye-readable source of data should be preferred to any other. Where possible, the text of machine-readable,

microform or audiovisual sources should be viewed to verify the elements of the reference. Data that are

taken from a source other than the item itself should be recorded in brackets.

Suitable sources of data for the reference, in order of preference, are the following:

a) title page or equivalent, such as title screen, home page, disc label, map face;

b) verso of title page, header, etc.;

c) cover or label permanently associated with the item, including captions on graphic works, microfiche

headers, etc.;
d) container;
e) accompanying documentation, e.g. explanatory leaflet or manual.

If any element of data appears in different forms in different places on the item, the form appearing most

prominently in the preferred source should be used unless that source is obviously incorrect, e.g. an incorrect

label has been attached.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
4.1.2 Data supplied from other sources

Any information that does not appear in the cited information resource, but is supplied by the citer, should be

enclosed in brackets.
4.2 Transliteration

Any element in a non-Roman alphabet may be transliterated or romanized in accordance with the appropriate

International Standard.
4.3 Abbreviation

Generally accepted bibliographic terms should be abbreviated in accordance with the rules established in

ISO 832.

Other abbreviations should be avoided, except as provided in 5.3.4 for patents, in 6.3.4 for series titles, in

15.7.1 for graphic works and in A.4.2 for running notes.
4.4 Punctuation and typography

A consistent system of punctuation and typography should be used throughout a list of references. Each

element of a reference should be clearly separated from subsequent elements by punctuation or change of

typeface.

NOTE In order to emphasize the importance of consistency, a uniform scheme of punctuation is used in the

examples in this International Standard. The scheme is purely illustrative and does not form part of the recommendations.

4.5 Order of elements
The usual order of elements in a reference is as follows:
a) name(s) of creator(s), if available;
b) title;
c) medium designation, if necessary;
d) edition;
e) production information (place and publisher);

f) date [in the name and date system (see Annex A), the year should not normally be repeated in this

location unless a fuller date is necessary (e.g. for a serial)];
g) series title, if applicable;
h) numeration within the item;
i) standard identifier(s), if applicable;
j) availability, access or location information;
k) additional general information.

If the name and date system, commonly referred to as the Harvard system (see Annex A), is being applied,

the year element is inserted after the creator.

EXAMPLE CRANE, D., 1972. Invisible Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)

Annex B illustrates the application of this recommendation in particular circumstances related to serials,

monographs, contributions and special categories of information resource.
5 Creator
5.1 Selection

The persons (see 5.2) or organizations (see 5.3) shown most prominently in the preferred source (see 4.1) as

responsible for the content of the cited item, in its published form, should be given as creator. The creator's

role varies from one type of information resource to another. If there is no obvious creator, one should be

selected from the following roles, listed in order of preference:

a) author, composer, librettist, mapping agency, surveyor, cartographer, copyist, system designer of

software, patentee, patent applicant, artist, photographer, draughtsman, graphic designer;

b) conductor, performer of music, drama, etc., director of films, inventor;
c) compiler, editor, reviser;

d) translator, engraver, photographer of another creator's work, copyist, arranger, software programmer;

e) publisher, online information provider, production company;
f) distributor, online host.

For cited information resources containing a number of contributors, a role with which a single creator is

associated should be preferred to any role with which several creators are associated (see also 5.4.3).

EXAMPLE 1 AYMARD, Maurice, ed. Dutch capitalism and world capitalism. In: Studies in Modern Capitalism. New

York: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 78-96.

EXAMPLE 2 BRITTEN, Benjamin. Eight folk song arrangements for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS (Ed). London:

Faber Music, 1980.

EXAMPLE 3 KING'S SINGERS. Christmas with the King's Singers: six arrangements for mixed voices. London:

Chappell Music, 1981.
5.2 Personal names
5.2.1 General

Names of creators should normally be given in the form in which they appear in the preferred source (but see

5.2.2), transliterated if necessary (see 4.2).

Forenames or other secondary elements should be given after the surname, if at the beginning of the

reference.
EXAMPLE 1 BACH, C.P.E.
EXAMPLE 2 DÜRER, Albrecht.
EXAMPLE 3 FOWLER, H.W.
EXAMPLE 4 GORDON, Dexter.
EXAMPLE 5 RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)

Treatment of secondary elements should follow the practice of the nation to which the creator belongs as

closely as possible.
EXAMPLE 6 FALLA, Manuel de. [Spanish].
EXAMPLE 7 LA FONTAINE, Jean de. [French].
EXAMPLE 8 DE LA MARE, Walter. [English].
EXAMPLE 9 KLEIST, Heinrich von. [German].
5.2.2 Variant forms

If a creator's name appears in different forms in different information resources cited in one work (e.g.

Tchaikovsky, Chaikovski), the form used in the cited information resource should be retained. Only one form

of the name, in brackets if necessary, should appear as the first element.
5.2.3 Additions

Additions to names indicating rank, office or status (academic, professional, etc.) may be retained or supplied

to distinguish creators with the same names.
EXAMPLE 1 CLARK, William, ARIBA.
EXAMPLE 2 CLARK, William, MD, MRCP.
EXAMPLE 3 BALFOUR, Robert [Col.].
EXAMPLE 4 BALFOUR, Robert [Rev.].
5.3 Organizations or groups
5.3.1 Form of name

If the creator is an organization or group of people, the form of name used in the reference should be that

which appears for the name in the bibliographic database being used for making the reference, usually a

reference to a name in a national authority file, transliterated if necessary (see 4.2).

EXAMPLE 1 ACADEMIA SCIENTIARUM FENNICA.
EXAMPLE 2 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE.
EXAMPLE 3 AKADEMIYA NAUK SSSR.
EXAMPLE 4 INSTITUT GÉOGRAPHIQUE NATIONAL.
EXAMPLE 5 MAGYAR SZABVANYUGYI.
EXAMPLE 6 ROYAL SOCIETY.

If the name appears as a group of initials, the full form, if known, may be added in brackets, unless the body is

usually identified by the initials only, e.g. UNESCO, NATO.
5.3.2 Ambiguous names

To distinguish between different bodies with the same name, the appropriate place name should be added.

EXAMPLE TRINITY COLLEGE [Cambridge].
TRINITY COLLEGE [Dublin].
6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
5.3.3 Subordinate body

If the name of an organization implies subordination to a parent body of which it is an organ or administrative

division, or if its full significance depends upon the inclusion of the name of the parent body, the latter should

be given first in the reference.
EXAMPLE 1 IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. Paints Division.
EXAMPLE 2 MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERAL RESOURCES. Air Survey Department.

A subordinate body should appear under its own name if it has specific functions of its own and the full

significance of its name is independent of that of the parent body.
EXAMPLE 3 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE. [not INSTITUT DE FRANCE. Académie française].

EXAMPLE 4 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. [not UNITED NATIONS. World Health Organization].

5.3.4 Parent body

If the parent body is a state, a federation of states or a provincial, local or municipal authority, a name in

general use should be given in preference to a full or correct official name. Foreign names may be given in the

language of the information resource or in the language of the main target audience.

EXAMPLE 1 FRANCE. [for République française].
EXAMPLE 2 HULL. [for Kingston-upon-Hull].
EXAMPLE 3 WESTMINSTER. [for City of Westminster].

For patents (see 15.9), the country of origin or originating office may be abbreviated according to the

ISO 3166 country code or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ST3 code.

EXAMPLE 4 GB. [for United Kingdom].
5.4 Multiple creators
5.4.1 Two or three creators

If there are two or three creators of equal status, their names should be given in the reference. The name that

is given first should be in a form that is suitable to the alphabetical arrangement of a list, i.e. usually in inverted

order (family name recorded first). The name(s) of the second and subsequent creators may be recorded in

direct order, if desired. A consistent system of recording such names shall be used throughout the list of

references.
EXAMPLE 1 MURET, Pierre and Philippe SAGNAC.
EXAMPLE 2 Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung and UNESCO.
EXAMPLE 3 QU H.Q., C. POLYCHRONAKOS, and TYPE I DIABETES GENETICS CONSORTIUM.
5.4.2 More than three creators

For works with four or more creators, all names should be given if possible. If any names are omitted, the

name of the first creator shall be given followed by “and others” or “et al.”.
EXAMPLE FITTING, Hans and others.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(E)
5.4.3 Title first

For certain kinds of information resources (e.g. encyclopaedias) or if an item is the co-operative output of

many individuals, none of whom has a dominant role as creator (e.g. films), the title should be used instead of

a creator. For references to information resources with several creators, it may be appropriate to give the title

or series title first (but see 5.1). (See also 5.6 and 15.6.1.)
EXAMPLE 1 Encyclopaedia Britannica.
EXAMPLE 2 The last command [silent film]. Directed by Josef VON STERNBERG.
EXAMPLE 3 60 years of cool. Blue Note Records OBSBN01, 1999.
5.4.4 Conferences

If no person or organization can be identified as the creator (see 5.1) of the proceedings of a single

conference, the name of the conference should be treated as the first element.
EXAMPLE International Conference on Scientific information. Washington DC, 1958.

The numbered proceedings of a series of conferences should be treated as a serial.

5.4.5 Subsidiary creator
To facilitate identification of a particular information resource,
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 690:2010
01-december-2010
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 690:1996
SIST ISO 690-2:2003

Informatika in dokumentacija - Smernice za bibliografske navedbe in citiranje virov

informacij

Information and documentation - Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to

information resources

Information et documentation - Lignes directrices pour les références bibliographiques et

les citations de ressources d'information
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 690:2010
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST ISO 690:2010 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2010
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 690
Third edition
2010-06-15
Information and documentation —
Guidelines for bibliographic references
and citations to information resources
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la rédaction
des références bibliographiques et des citations des ressources
d'information
Reference number
ISO 690:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2010
ISO 690:2010(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2010

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 690:2010
ISO 690:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 Basic principles for creating references.............................................................................................3

4 Elements of a reference........................................................................................................................3

4.1 Sources of data......................................................................................................................................3

4.2 Transliteration........................................................................................................................................4

4.3 Abbreviation...........................................................................................................................................4

4.4 Punctuation and typography................................................................................................................4

4.5 Order of elements..................................................................................................................................4

5 Creator....................................................................................................................................................5

5.1 Selection.................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Personal names .....................................................................................................................................5

5.3 Organizations or groups.......................................................................................................................6

5.4 Multiple creators....................................................................................................................................7

5.5 Pseudonyms ..........................................................................................................................................8

5.6 Anonymous works ................................................................................................................................9

6 Title .........................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 Form of title............................................................................................................................................9

6.2 Translation of title ...............................................................................................................................11

6.3 Titles of serials ....................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Distinction between title of contribution and title of host item ......................................................12

6.5 Conferences.........................................................................................................................................12

7 Medium designation............................................................................................................................12

8 Edition...................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Different editions .................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Updated versions ................................................................................................................................13

9 Production............................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Place .....................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Publisher or alternative.......................................................................................................................14

9.3 Date.......................................................................................................................................................14

10 Numeration and pagination................................................................................................................16

10.1 General .................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Part cited ..............................................................................................................................................16

10.3 Omission of terms ...............................................................................................................................16

11 Series title and number.......................................................................................................................16

12 Identifiers..............................................................................................................................................17

13 Location................................................................................................................................................17

14 Additional general information ..........................................................................................................17

14.1 General .................................................................................................................................................17

14.2 Classification .......................................................................................................................................17

14.3 Size........................................................................................................................................................17

14.4 Price and availability...........................................................................................................................18

14.5 Languages............................................................................................................................................18

14.6 Registered trade mark.........................................................................................................................18

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14.7 Other information.................................................................................................................................18

15 Specific categories of information resource ....................................................................................18

15.1 General..................................................................................................................................................18

15.2 Electronic information resources or parts and contributions thereof ...........................................18

15.3 Computer software ..............................................................................................................................20

15.4 Audiovisual material............................................................................................................................21

15.5 Cartographic material..........................................................................................................................21

15.6 Films, videos and broadcasts ............................................................................................................22

15.7 Graphic works......................................................................................................................................23

15.8 Music.....................................................................................................................................................23

15.9 Patents ..................................................................................................................................................23

15.10 Reports in series, standards and similar publications....................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Methods of citation .....................................................................................................25

Annex B (informative) Presentation of references.........................................................................................28

Annex C (informative) Examples of bibliographic references......................................................................33

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................40

iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 690:2010
ISO 690:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 690 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 9, Identification and description.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of ISO 690:1987 and the first edition of

ISO 690-2:1997 of which the entire texts have been amalgamated and technically revised.

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SIST ISO 690:2010
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SIST ISO 690:2010
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 690:2010(E)
Information and documentation — Guidelines for bibliographic
references and citations to information resources
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references. It also gives

guidelines for the preparation of citations in Latin scripts in works that are not themselves primarily

bibliographical. It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations to all kinds of information resources,

including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic

information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints,

photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images. It is not applicable to machine-parsable

citations. It is also not applicable to legal citations, which have their own standards.

This International Standard does not prescribe a particular style of reference or citation. The examples used in

this International Standard are not prescriptive as to style and punctuation.

Annexes A and B make reference to the relevant clause(s) of this International Standard which explain the

requirements for referencing or citing printed and electronic information resources. Annex C gives examples of

bibliographic references that comply with this International Standard.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
call number

reference provided to enable the custodian to locate a resource within a repository

2.2
citation
indication within the text or other form of content of a relevant reference
2.3
computer program

schedule or plan that specifies actions expressed in a form suitable for execution by a computer

[ISO/TR 9544:1988]
2.4
contribution
item provided by a creator to form part of a host resource from several creators
EXAMPLE An article in a serial.
2.5
creator
entity primarily responsible for making the resource
[ISO 15836:2009]
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2.6
database

collection of data objects stored together in electronic form, according to one schema, and made accessible

by computer

NOTE Some databases, or files within a database, can also constitute a monograph or serial publication. In cases

where it can readily be determined that a specific electronic resource is a monograph or serial, those terms are preferred

over the broader term “database”.
2.7
graphic works

graphics such as photographs (including negatives and transparencies), engravings, prints, drawings, wall

charts, etc.
2.8
key title

unique name for a continuing resource, established by the ISSN Network and inseparably linked with its ISSN

[ISO 3297:2007]
2.9
landscape

orientation of a page with the longer edge running horizontally when it is in reading position

2.10
map series

number of related map sheets designed to form a single group, normally distinguishable by such common

characteristics as a collective title, a sheet-numbering system and the same scale

NOTE Normally a map series is the work of one mapping agency.
2.11
map height
vertical measurement of a map when the map is in reading position
2.12
map series designation

coded numeric or alphanumeric identification applied to a map sheet, a map series or an atlas by the

publisher
2.13
monograph

publication in print or non-print form, complete in itself or intended to be completed in a finite number of parts

2.14
neat line
a line separating the body of a map from the map margin
2.15
reference

data describing a resource or part thereof, sufficiently precise and detailed to identify it and to enable it to be

located

NOTE A reference can be: part of a list of information resources; the heading of an abstract or a critical review; a

note appended to a text, either at the foot of the page or at the end of a text; or a statement embodied in the text.

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2.16
serial

publication in print or non-print form, issued in successive parts, usually having numerical or chronological

designations, and intended to be continued indefinitely, whatever the periodicity

NOTE Serials can include periodicals, journals, newspapers, annuals, etc.
2.17
series

group of monographs, serials or other publications sharing a common title, and possibly numbered

3 Basic principles for creating references

3.1 The information included in a reference should be sufficient to clearly identify the material being cited.

3.2 The creator of the reference should determine the appropriate level of specificity at which the reference

is made (e.g. to an entire document or to a specific part of a document) based on the purposes of the citation

and the use that was made of the material being cited.

3.3 The data included in a reference should, whenever possible, be taken from the information resource

being cited.

3.4 The data recorded in the reference should reflect the specific copy or instance of the document that was

used. For online documents that are subject to change, such data include the network location of the

particular version that was used and the date on which the document was accessed.

3.5 A uniform style, format and punctuation scheme shall be used for all references in a document,

regardless of the particular style guide being used.
4 Elements of a reference
4.1 Sources of data
4.1.1 General

The data used in a reference should, if possible, be taken from the cited information resource itself. An

eye-readable source of data should be preferred to any other. Where possible, the text of machine-readable,

microform or audiovisual sources should be viewed to verify the elements of the reference. Data that are

taken from a source other than the item itself should be recorded in brackets.

Suitable sources of data for the reference, in order of preference, are the following:

a) title page or equivalent, such as title screen, home page, disc label, map face;

b) verso of title page, header, etc.;

c) cover or label permanently associated with the item, including captions on graphic works, microfiche

headers, etc.;
d) container;
e) accompanying documentation, e.g. explanatory leaflet or manual.

If any element of data appears in different forms in different places on the item, the form appearing most

prominently in the preferred source should be used unless that source is obviously incorrect, e.g. an incorrect

label has been attached.
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4.1.2 Data supplied from other sources

Any information that does not appear in the cited information resource, but is supplied by the citer, should be

enclosed in brackets.
4.2 Transliteration

Any element in a non-Roman alphabet may be transliterated or romanized in accordance with the appropriate

International Standard.
4.3 Abbreviation

Generally accepted bibliographic terms should be abbreviated in accordance with the rules established in

ISO 832.

Other abbreviations should be avoided, except as provided in 5.3.4 for patents, in 6.3.4 for series titles, in

15.7.1 for graphic works and in A.4.2 for running notes.
4.4 Punctuation and typography

A consistent system of punctuation and typography should be used throughout a list of references. Each

element of a reference should be clearly separated from subsequent elements by punctuation or change of

typeface.

NOTE In order to emphasize the importance of consistency, a uniform scheme of punctuation is used in the

examples in this International Standard. The scheme is purely illustrative and does not form part of the recommendations.

4.5 Order of elements
The usual order of elements in a reference is as follows:
a) name(s) of creator(s), if available;
b) title;
c) medium designation, if necessary;
d) edition;
e) production information (place and publisher);

f) date [in the name and date system (see Annex A), the year should not normally be repeated in this

location unless a fuller date is necessary (e.g. for a serial)];
g) series title, if applicable;
h) numeration within the item;
i) standard identifier(s), if applicable;
j) availability, access or location information;
k) additional general information.

If the name and date system, commonly referred to as the Harvard system (see Annex A), is being applied,

the year element is inserted after the creator.

EXAMPLE CRANE, D., 1972. Invisible Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Annex B illustrates the application of this recommendation in particular circumstances related to serials,

monographs, contributions and special categories of information resource.
5 Creator
5.1 Selection

The persons (see 5.2) or organizations (see 5.3) shown most prominently in the preferred source (see 4.1) as

responsible for the content of the cited item, in its published form, should be given as creator. The creator's

role varies from one type of information resource to another. If there is no obvious creator, one should be

selected from the following roles, listed in order of preference:

a) author, composer, librettist, mapping agency, surveyor, cartographer, copyist, system designer of

software, patentee, patent applicant, artist, photographer, draughtsman, graphic designer;

b) conductor, performer of music, drama, etc., director of films, inventor;
c) compiler, editor, reviser;

d) translator, engraver, photographer of another creator's work, copyist, arranger, software programmer;

e) publisher, online information provider, production company;
f) distributor, online host.

For cited information resources containing a number of contributors, a role with which a single creator is

associated should be preferred to any role with which several creators are associated (see also 5.4.3).

EXAMPLE 1 AYMARD, Maurice, ed. Dutch capitalism and world capitalism. In: Studies in Modern Capitalism. New

York: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 78-96.

EXAMPLE 2 BRITTEN, Benjamin. Eight folk song arrangements for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS (Ed). London:

Faber Music, 1980.

EXAMPLE 3 KING'S SINGERS. Christmas with the King's Singers: six arrangements for mixed voices. London:

Chappell Music, 1981.
5.2 Personal names
5.2.1 General

Names of creators should normally be given in the form in which they appear in the preferred source (but see

5.2.2), transliterated if necessary (see 4.2).

Forenames or other secondary elements should be given after the surname, if at the beginning of the

reference.
EXAMPLE 1 BACH, C.P.E.
EXAMPLE 2 DÜRER, Albrecht.
EXAMPLE 3 FOWLER, H.W.
EXAMPLE 4 GORDON, Dexter.
EXAMPLE 5 RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago.
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Treatment of secondary elements should follow the practice of the nation to which the creator belongs as

closely as possible.
EXAMPLE 6 FALLA, Manuel de. [Spanish].
EXAMPLE 7 LA FONTAINE, Jean de. [French].
EXAMPLE 8 DE LA MARE, Walter. [English].
EXAMPLE 9 KLEIST, Heinrich von. [German].
5.2.2 Variant forms

If a creator's name appears in different forms in different information resources cited in one work (e.g.

Tchaikovsky, Chaikovski), the form used in the cited information resource should be retained. Only one form

of the name, in brackets if necessary, should appear as the first element.
5.2.3 Additions

Additions to names indicating rank, office or status (academic, professional, etc.) may be retained or supplied

to distinguish creators with the same names.
EXAMPLE 1 CLARK, William, ARIBA.
EXAMPLE 2 CLARK, William, MD, MRCP.
EXAMPLE 3 BALFOUR, Robert [Col.].
EXAMPLE 4 BALFOUR, Robert [Rev.].
5.3 Organizations or groups
5.3.1 Form of name

If the creator is an organization or group of people, the form of name used in the reference should be that

which appears for the name in the bibliographic database being used for making the reference, usually a

reference to a name in a national authority file, transliterated if necessary (see 4.2).

EXAMPLE 1 ACADEMIA SCIENTIARUM FENNICA.
EXAMPLE 2 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE.
EXAMPLE 3 AKADEMIYA NAUK SSSR.
EXAMPLE 4 INSTITUT GÉOGRAPHIQUE NATIONAL.
EXAMPLE 5 MAGYAR SZABVANYUGYI.
EXAMPLE 6 ROYAL SOCIETY.

If the name appears as a group of initials, the full form, if known, may be added in brackets, unless the body is

usually identified by the initials only, e.g. UNESCO, NATO.
5.3.2 Ambiguous names

To distinguish between different bodies with the same name, the appropriate place name should be added.

EXAMPLE TRINITY COLLEGE [Cambridge].
TRINITY COLLEGE [Dublin].
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5.3.3 Subordinate body

If the name of an organization implies subordination to a parent body of which it is an organ or administrative

division, or if its full significance depends upon the inclusion of the name of the parent body, the latter should

be given first in the reference.
EXAMPLE 1 IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. Paints Division.
EXAMPLE 2 MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERAL RESOURCES. Air Survey Department.

A subordinate body should appear under its own name if it has specific functions of its own and the full

significance of its name is independent of that of the parent body.
EXAMPLE 3 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE. [not INSTITUT DE FRANCE. Académie française].

EXAMPLE 4 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. [not UNITED NATIONS. World Health Organization].

5.3.4 Parent body

If the parent body is a state, a federation of states or a provincial, local or municipal authority, a name in

general use should be given in preference to a full or correct official name. Foreign names may be given in the

language of the information resource or in the language of the main target audience.

EXAMPLE 1 FRANCE. [for République française].
EXAMPLE 2 HULL. [for Kingston-upon-Hull].
EXAMPLE 3 WESTMINSTER. [for City of Westminster].

For patents (see 15.9), the country of origin or originating office may be abbreviated according to the

ISO 3166 country code or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ST3 code.

EXAMPLE 4 GB. [for United Kingdom].
5.4 Multiple creators
5.4.1 Two or three creators

If there are two or three creators of equal status, their names should be given in the reference. The name that

is given first should be in a form that is suitable to the alphabetical arrangement of a list, i.e. usually in inverted

order (family name recorded first). The name(s) of the second and subsequent creators may be recorded in

direct order, if desired. A consistent system of recording such names shall be used throughout the list of

references.
EXAMPLE 1 MURET, Pierre and Philippe SAGNAC.
EXAMPLE 2 Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung and UNESCO.
EXAMPLE 3 QU H.Q., C. POLYCHRONAKOS, and TYPE I DIABETES GENETICS CONSORTIUM.
5.4.2 More than three creators

For works with four or more creators, all names should be given if possible. If any names are omitted, the

name of the first creator shall be given followed by “and others” or “et al.”.
EXAMPLE FITTING, Hans and others.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reser
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 690
Troisième édition
2010-06-15
Information et documentation —
Principes directeurs pour la rédaction
des références bibliographiques et des
citations des ressources d'information
Information and documentation — Guidelines for bibliographic
references and citations to information resources
Numéro de référence
ISO 690:2010(F)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 690:2010(F)
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ii © ISO 2010 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 690:2010(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ......................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ..........................................................................................................................1

2 Termes et définitions ............................................................................................................................1

3 Principes de base applicables à la création de références...............................................................3

4 Éléments d'une référence.....................................................................................................................3

4.1 Sources des données ...........................................................................................................................3

4.2 Translittération ......................................................................................................................................4

4.3 Abréviation.............................................................................................................................................4

4.4 Ponctuation et typographie..................................................................................................................4

4.5 Ordre des éléments ...............................................................................................................................4

5 Créateur..................................................................................................................................................5

5.1 Choix.......................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Noms de personnes ..............................................................................................................................6

5.3 Organismes ou groupes .......................................................................................................................7

5.4 Plusieurs créateurs ...............................................................................................................................8

5.5 Pseudonymes ........................................................................................................................................9

5.6 Œuvres anonymes.................................................................................................................................9

6 Titre.........................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 Forme du titre ........................................................................................................................................9

6.2 Traduction du titre...............................................................................................................................12

6.3 Titres des publications en série.........................................................................................................12

6.4 Distinction entre le titre de la contribution et le titre de la ressource hôte...................................12

6.5 Conférences.........................................................................................................................................13

7 Indication du support..........................................................................................................................13

8 Édition...................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Éditions différentes .............................................................................................................................14

8.2 Versions mises à jour .........................................................................................................................14

9 Production............................................................................................................................................14

9.1 Lieu .......................................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Éditeur ou fonction équivalente.........................................................................................................15

9.3 Date.......................................................................................................................................................15

10 Numérotation et pagination................................................................................................................17

10.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................17

10.2 Partie citée ...........................................................................................................................................17

10.3 Omission de termes ............................................................................................................................17

11 Titre de collection et numéro .............................................................................................................18

12 Identifiants ...........................................................................................................................................18

13 Localisation..........................................................................................................................................18

14 Informations générales complémentaires ........................................................................................18

14.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................18

14.2 Classification .......................................................................................................................................18

14.3 Dimensions ..........................................................................................................................................19

14.4 Prix et disponibilité .............................................................................................................................19

14.5 Langues................................................................................................................................................19

14.6 Marque déposée ..................................................................................................................................19

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ISO 690:2010(F)

14.7 Autres informations.............................................................................................................................19

15 Catégories particulières de ressources ............................................................................................19

15.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................19

15.2 Ressources ou parties de ressources électroniques et contributions associées .......................20

15.3 Logiciels ...............................................................................................................................................22

15.4 Ressources audiovisuelles.................................................................................................................22

15.5 Documents cartographiques ..............................................................................................................22

15.6 Films, vidéos et émissions de télévision ..........................................................................................24

15.7 Œuvres graphiques .............................................................................................................................24

15.8 Musique ................................................................................................................................................25

15.9 Brevets..................................................................................................................................................25

15.10 Rapports techniques en collections, normes et publications similaires ......................................26

Annexe A (informative) Méthodes de citation ................................................................................................27

Annexe B (informative) Présentation des références....................................................................................30

Annexe C (informative) Exemples de références bibliographiques.............................................................35

Bibliographie .....................................................................................................................................................42

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ISO 690:2010(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO 690 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 46, Information et documentation, sous-comité SC 9,

Identification et description.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition de l'ISO 690:1987 et la première édition de

l'ISO 690-2:1997 dont les textes ont été fusionnés dans leur intégralité et ont fait l'objet d'une révision

technique.
© ISO 2010 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 690:2010(F)
Information et documentation — Principes directeurs pour la
rédaction des références bibliographiques et des citations des
ressources d'information
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale donne des principes directeurs pour la rédaction des références

bibliographiques. Elle donne également des principes directeurs pour la rédaction en caractères latins de

citations destinées à figurer dans des ouvrages qui ne sont pas eux-mêmes de nature essentiellement

bibliographique. Elle s'applique aux références bibliographiques et aux citations de ressources de tous types y

compris, mais sans limitation, aux monographies, aux publications en série, aux contributions, aux brevets,

aux documents cartographiques, aux ressources électroniques (y compris les logiciels et les bases de

données), à la musique, au son enregistré, aux estampes, aux photographies, aux œuvres graphiques et

audiovisuelles et aux images animées. Elle ne s'applique pas aux citations analysables par une machine. Elle

ne s'applique pas aux citations réglementaires qui disposent de leurs propres normes.

La présente Norme internationale ne donne aucune consigne de mise en forme des références ou des

citations. Le style et la ponctuation utilisés dans les exemples donnés dans la présente Norme internationale

n'ont pas de caractère normatif.

Les Annexes A et B font référence aux articles pertinents de la présente Norme internationale qui explicitent

les exigences relatives à l'établissement des références et des citations de ressources imprimées et

électroniques. L'Annexe C donne des exemples de références bibliographiques conformes à la présente

Norme internationale.
2 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s'appliquent.

2.1
cote

référence permettant au responsable du fonds de localiser une ressource dans un lieu de conservation

2.2
citation

indication dans un texte ou une autre forme de contenu d'une référence correspondante

2.3
programme informatique

programme ou plan qui définit les actions sous une forme exécutable par ordinateur

[ISO/TR 9544:1988]
2.4
contribution

document fourni par un créateur pour faire partie d'une ressource hôte, composée des contributions émanant

de plusieurs créateurs
EXEMPLE Un article dans un périodique en série.
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2.5
créateur
entité principalement responsable de la création du contenu de la ressource
[ISO 15836:2009]
2.6
base de données

réunion d'objets de données stockés, sous forme électronique, conformément à un schéma, et rendus

accessibles par ordinateur

NOTE Certaines bases de données ou fichiers d'une base de données peuvent aussi constituer une monographie ou

une publication en série. Dans les cas où il est possible de déterminer rapidement qu'une ressource électronique donnée

est une monographie ou une publication en série, cette terminologie est préférable au terme générique «base de

données».
2.7
œuvres graphiques

représentations graphiques telles que des photographies (y compris les négatifs et les diapositives), gravures,

estampes, dessins, affiches, etc.
2.8
titre clé

nom unique d'une ressource continue, établi par le Réseau de l'ISSN et inséparablement lié à son ISSN

[ISO 3297:2007]
2.9
format paysage

orientation d'une page dont le côté le plus long est disposé à l'horizontale dans le sens de la lecture

2.10
série cartographique

ensemble de cartes en feuilles associées, conçu pour constituer un seul groupe, généralement identifiable par

des caractéristiques communes telles qu'un titre collectif, un système de numérotation de feuille et la même

échelle
NOTE En général, une série de cartes est l'œuvre du même service cartographique.
2.11
hauteur de carte
mesure verticale d'une carte dans le sens de la lecture
2.12
indication de la série cartographique

identification numérique ou alphanumérique donnée par l'éditeur à une carte en feuilles, une série de cartes

ou un atlas
2.13
monographie

publication sous forme imprimée ou non, complète en une seule partie ou destinée à l'être en un nombre

limité de parties
2.14
bord du dessin
ligne séparant le corps d'une carte de la marge de cette carte
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2.15
référence

données décrivant une ressource ou une partie d'une ressource, suffisamment précises et détaillées pour

l'identifier et permettre de la localiser

NOTE Une référence peut être: une partie d'une liste de ressources; l'en-tête d'un résumé ou d'une analyse critique;

une note annexée à un texte, en bas de page ou à la fin du texte; ou une indication intégrée dans le texte.

2.16
publication en série

publication imprimée ou non, publiée en parties successives, portant généralement une indication d'ordre

numérique ou chronologique et conçue pour être publiée indéfiniment, quelle que soit sa périodicité

NOTE Les publications en série comprennent les périodiques, les revues, les journaux, les annuaires, etc.

2.17
collection

ensemble de monographies, publications en série ou autres publications partageant un titre commun,

éventuellement numérotées
3 Principes de base applicables à la création de références

3.1 Il convient que les informations qui figurent dans une référence soient suffisantes pour identifier

clairement le document cité.

3.2 Il convient que le créateur de la référence détermine le niveau de spécificité approprié auquel

s'applique la référence (par exemple à un document complet ou à une partie donnée d'un document) en

fonction des objectifs de la citation et de l'usage qui a été fait du support cité.

3.3 Il convient, dans la mesure du possible, que les données qui figurent dans une référence proviennent

de la ressource citée.

3.4 Il convient que les données mentionnées dans la référence se rapportent à l'exemplaire ou à l'exemple

spécifique du document utilisé. Pour les documents en ligne susceptibles de modifications, ces données

comprennent la localisation sur le réseau de la version particulière utilisée et la date de consultation du

document.

3.5 Un schéma uniforme de style, de présentation et de ponctuation doit être utilisé pour toutes les

références dans un document, indépendamment du type particulier de style utilisé.

4 Éléments d'une référence
4.1 Sources des données
4.1.1 Généralités

Il convient, si possible, que les données mentionnées dans une référence soient tirées de la ressource citée

même. Il convient de privilégier une source de données lisible à l'œil nu. Dans la mesure du possible, il

convient de regarder le texte des sources sur microformes ou audiovisuelles, lisibles par la machine, pour

vérifier les éléments de la référence. Il convient de noter entre crochets les données provenant d'une source

autre que celle de la ressource elle-même.

Les sources appropriées de données pour la référence sont les suivantes, par ordre de préférence:

a) la page de titre ou son équivalent, comme l'écran-titre, la page d'accueil, l'étiquette sur un disque, la

surface cartographiée;
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b) le verso de la page de titre, l'en-tête, etc.;

c) la couverture ou l'étiquette associée de façon permanente au document, y compris les légendes sur les

œuvres graphiques, les en-têtes de microfiche, etc.;
d) le conteneur;

e) la documentation d'accompagnement, par exemple un dépliant d'explication ou un manuel.

Si un élément de donnée apparaît sous des formes différentes en divers endroits de la ressource, il convient

de choisir la forme mise en évidence sur la source privilégiée, à moins que cette source ne soit

manifestement incorrecte, par exemple à cause d'une erreur d'étiquetage.
4.1.2 Données provenant d'autres sources

Il convient d'indiquer entre crochets toute information qui n'apparaît pas dans la ressource citée, mais qui est

fournie par l'auteur de la citation.
4.2 Translittération

Tout élément transcrit dans un alphabet autre que l'alphabet latin peut être translittéré ou romanisé

conformément à la Norme internationale appropriée.
4.3 Abréviation

Il convient d'abréger les termes bibliographiques généralement reconnus conformément aux règles établies

dans l'ISO 832.

Il convient d'éviter les autres abréviations à l'exception de celles indiquées en 5.3.4 pour les brevets, en 6.3.4

pour les titres de collections, en 15.7.1 pour les œuvres graphiques et en A.4.2 pour les notes courantes.

4.4 Ponctuation et typographie

Il convient d'utiliser un système cohérent de ponctuation et de typographie dans toute la liste de références. Il

convient que chaque élément d'une référence soit nettement séparé de l'élément suivant par un signe de

ponctuation ou une modification de caractère typographique.

NOTE Pour mettre l'accent sur l'importance de la cohérence, une présentation uniforme de la ponctuation est utilisée

dans les exemples de la présente Norme internationale. Cette présentation n'est donnée qu'à titre d'exemple et ne fait

pas partie des recommandations.
4.5 Ordre des éléments
L'ordre habituel des éléments dans une référence est le suivant:
a) nom(s) du (des) créateur(s), si disponible(s);
b) titre;
c) indication du support, si nécessaire;
d) édition;
e) informations relatives à la production (lieu et éditeur);

f) date [dans le système «du nom et de la date» (voir Annexe A), il convient, en règle générale, de ne pas

répéter l'année à cet emplacement à moins qu'une date plus complète ne soit nécessaire (par exemple

pour une publication en série)];
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g) titre de publication en série, s'il s'applique;
h) numérotation dans la ressource;
i) numéro normalisé, s'il s'applique;
j) disponibilité, accès ou informations relatives à la localisation; et
k) informations générales complémentaires.

Si le système «du nom et de la date», connu sous le nom de «système Harvard» (voir Annexe A), est utilisé,

l'élément «année» est inséré après le créateur.

EXEMPLE CRANE, D., 1972. Invisible Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

L'Annexe B illustre l'application de cette recommandation, notamment dans le cas des publications en série,

monographies, contributions et catégories particulières de ressources.
5 Créateur
5.1 Choix

Il convient de désigner comme créateur la personne (voir 5.2) ou l'organisme (voir 5.3) responsable du

contenu du document cité dans sa forme publiée, et mis en évidence dans la source privilégiée (voir 4.1). Le

rôle du créateur varie d'un document à l'autre. En l'absence d'un créateur évident, il convient d'en choisir un

dans la liste suivante présentée par ordre de préférence:

a) auteur, compositeur, librettiste, service cartographique, topographe, cartographe, copiste, concepteur de

logiciels, titulaire de brevets, déposant de demande de brevet, artiste, photographe, dessinateur,

concepteur graphique;

b) chef d'orchestre, interprète d'une œuvre musicale ou théâtrale, etc.; réalisateur de films, inventeur;

c) compilateur, éditeur scientifique, réviseur;

d) traducteur, graveur, photographe d'une autre œuvre du créateur, copiste; arrangeur; programmeur

système;

e) éditeur commercial, fournisseur d'informations en ligne, société de production;

f) distributeur, système hôte en ligne.

Pour les ressources citées contenant un certain nombre de contributions, il convient de privilégier une fonction

associée à un seul créateur plutôt qu'une fonction associant plusieurs créateurs (voir également 5.4.3).

EXEMPLE 1 AYMARD, Maurice, ed. Dutch capitalism and world capitalism. In: Studies in Modern Capitalism. New

York: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 78-96.

EXEMPLE 2 BRITTEN, Benjamin. Eight folk song arrangements for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS (Ed). London:

Faber Music, 1980.

EXEMPLE 3 KING'S SINGERS. Christmas with the King's Singers: six arrangements for mixed voices. London:

Chappell Music, 1981.
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5.2 Noms de personnes
5.2.1 Généralités

En règle générale, il convient d'indiquer le nom des créateurs tel qu'il apparaît dans la source privilégiée

(mais voir 5.2.2), translittéré si nécessaire (voir 4.2).

Il convient d'indiquer après le nom les prénoms ou autres éléments secondaires s'ils figurent au début de la

référence.
EXEMPLE 1 BACH, C.P.E.
EXEMPLE 2 DÜRER, Albrecht.
EXEMPLE 3 FOWLER, H. W.
EXEMPLE 4 GORDON, Dexter.
EXEMPLE 5 RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago.

Il convient de traiter les ressources secondaires en respectant le plus étroitement possible la pratique du pays

auquel appartient le créateur.
EXEMPLE 6 FALLA, Manuel de. [Espagne].
EXEMPLE 7 LA FONTAINE, Jean de. [France].
EXEMPLE 8 DE LA MARE, Walter. [Angleterre].
EXEMPLE 9 KLEIST, Heinrich von. [Allemagne].
5.2.2 Variantes de forme

Si le nom du créateur apparaît sous différentes formes dans différentes ressources citées dans un ouvrage

(par exemple Tchaïkovsky, Chaïkovski), il convient de conserver la forme utilisée dans la ressource citée. Il

convient de ne retenir comme premier élément qu'une seule forme du nom, entre crochets si nécessaire.

5.2.3 Mentions complémentaires

Des mentions complémentaires des noms indiquant la fonction hiérarchique, le bureau ou le statut

(universitaire, professionnel, etc.) peuvent être conservées ou fournies pour différencier des créateurs portant

le même nom.
EXEMPLE 1 CLARK, William, ARIBA.
EXEMPLE 2 CLARK, William, MD, MRCP.
EXEMPLE 3 BALFOUR, Robert [Col.].
EXEMPLE 4 BALFOUR, Robert [Rev.].
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5.3 Organismes ou groupes
5.3.1 Forme du nom

Si le créateur est un organisme ou un groupe de personnes, il convient que la forme du nom utilisée dans la

référence soit celle mise en évidence dans la base de données bibliographique. Il s'agit habituellement d'une

référence à un nom dans un fichier national d'autorité, translittérée si nécessaire (voir 4.2).

EXEMPLE 1 ACADEMIA SCIENTIARUM FENNICA.
EXEMPLE 2 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE.
EXEMPLE 3 AKADEMIYA NAUK SSSR.
EXEMPLE 4 INSTITUT GÉOGRAPHIQUE NATIONAL.
EXEMPLE 5 MAGYAR SZABVANYUGYI.
EXEMPLE 6 ROYAL SOCIETY.

Si le nom apparaît sous la forme d'un groupe d'initiales, la forme complète, si elle est connue, peut être

ajoutée entre crochets, à moins que l'organisme ne soit habituellement identifié que par ses seules initiales,

par exemple UNESCO, OTAN.
5.3.2 Noms ambigus

Afin de pouvoir différencier plusieurs collectivités portant le même nom, il convient d'y ajouter le nom de lieu

approprié.
EXEMPLE TRINITY COLLEGE [Cambridge].
TRINITY COLLEGE [Dublin].
5.3.3 Collectivité subordonnée

Si le nom d'une collectivité implique une subordination à une collectivité principale dont elle constitue un

organe ou un département administratif, ou si sa signification complète dépend de la présence du nom de la

collectivité principale, il convient que cette dernière soit mentionnée en premier dans la référence.

EXEMPLE 1 IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. Paints Division.
EXEMPLE 2 MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERAL RESOURCES. Air Survey Department.

Il convient qu'une collectivité subordonnée apparaisse sous son nom propre si elle est dotée de fonctions

spécifiques et d'un nom significatif indépendamment de la collectivité principale.

EXEMPLE 3 ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE. [au lieu de INSTITUT DE FRANCE. Académie française].

EXEMPLE 4 ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTÉ. [au lieu de NATIONS UNIES. Organisation mondiale de

la santé].
5.3.4 Collectivité principale

Si la collectivité principale est un État, une fédération d'États ou une autorité provinciale, locale ou municipale,

il convient d'indiquer de préférence un nom d'usage général plutôt qu'un nom officiel complet ou correct. Les

noms étrangers peuvent être indiqués dans la langue de la ressource d'information ou celle du public cible

principal.
EXEMPLE 1 FRANCE. [pour République française].
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