This document specifies the sampling procedures, transport conditions, storage and substrate used that can affect emissions of volatile organic compounds for three types of building products or furnishing: solid, liquid and combined. For individual products, the preparation of a test specimen for each type is specified.

  • Draft
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a general laboratory test method for the determination of the area specific emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples of newly produced building products or furnishing under defined climate conditions. The method can also, in principle, be applied to samples of aged products. The emission data obtained can be used to calculate concentrations in a model room (see Table B.1).
This document is applicable to various emission test chambers used for the determination of the emission of VOCs from building products or furnishing.
This document is also applicable to samples of wood-based panels and other building products, in order to determine the emission rate of formaldehyde.
NOTE            In principle, this document can be applied to the study of any gas phase emissions from samples of building products and furnishing.

  • Draft
    23 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document gives general guidance for the sampling and analysis of benzene in air by pumped sampling, thermal desorption and capillary gas chromatography.
This document is in accordance with the generic methodology selected as the basis of the European Union reference method for the determination of benzene in ambient air [1] for the purpose of comparison of measurement results with limit values with a one-year reference period.
This document is valid for the measurement of benzene in a concentration range of approximately 0,5 μg/m3 to 50 μg/m3. Air samples are typically collected over periods ranging from a few hours to 7 days.
The upper limit of the useful range is set by the sorptive capacity (the safe sampling volume) of the sorbent and by the linear dynamic range of the gas chromatograph column and detector or by the sample splitting capacity of the analytical instrumentation used. The lower limit of the useful range depends on the noise level of the detector and on blank levels of benzene and/or interfering artefacts on the sorbent. Artefacts are typically sub ng for graphitised carbon sorbents, but higher levels of aromatic hydrocarbons have been noted in other sorbents - e.g. porous polymers. The detection limit will be approximately 1/10 of the lower concentration range.
This document provides general guidance for the sampling of benzene using either a single sampler, which is changed manually after every exposure period, or a multi-sampler capable of storing and exposing multiple samples without user intervention.

  • Standard
    72 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the performance criteria and test procedures for the performance test of stationary automated measuring systems (AMS) that continuously measure gases and particulate matter in, and flow of, the waste gas from stationary sources.
This document supports the requirements of particular EU Directives. It provides the detailed procedures covering the QAL1 requirements of EN 14181 and, where required, input data used in QAL3.

  • Standard
    72 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the general performance criteria and test procedures for the performance test of portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) used for periodic measurements of stationary source emissions. It applies to the performance test of P-AMS based on measurement techniques specified by the standard reference method (SRM) or an alternative method (AM).
The performance test is based on the general performance criteria and test procedures specified in this document and on the specific requirements specified for the SRM or AM. This includes testing of the applicability and correct implementation of the QA/QC procedures specified for the SRM or AM.
This document supports the requirements of particular EU Directives.

  • Standard
    64 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard describes a standard method for determining the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentrations of suspendedparticulate matter in ambient air by sampling the particulate matter on filters and weighing them by means of a balance.
Measurements are performed with samplers with inlet designs as specified in Annex A, operating at a nominal flow rate of 2,3 m3/h,over a nominal sampling period of 24 h. Measurement results are expressed in μg/m3, where the volume of air is the volume atambient conditions near the inlet at the time of sampling.
The range of application of this European Standard is for 24 h measurements from approximately 1 μg/m3 (i.e. the limit of detection ofthe standard measurement method expressed as its uncertainty) up to 150 μg/m3 for PM10 and 120 μg/m3 for PM2,5.
This European Standard describes procedures and gives requirements for the testing and use of so-called sequential samplers,equipped with a filter changer, suitable for extended stand-alone operation. Sequential samplers are commonly used throughout theEuropean Union for the measurement of concentrations in ambient air of PM10 or PM2,5. However, this European Standard does notexclude the use of single-filter samplers.
This European Standard represents an evolution of earlier European Standards (EN 12341:1998 and 2014, EN 14907:2005). Newequipment procured shall comply fully with this European Standard.
Older versions of these samplers, including those described in EN 12341:2014 Annex B, have a special status in terms of their use. These samplers can still be used for monitoring purposes and for ongoing quality control, provided that a well justified additionalallowance is made to their uncertainties
This European Standard also provides guidance for the selection and testing of filters with the aim of reducing the measurementuncertainty of the results obtained when applying this European Standard.

  • Standard
    61 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the general principles of certification, including common procedures and requirements, for the certification of air quality monitoring equipment (AQME).
This document applies to the certification of AQME for ambient air quality and emissions from stationary sources for which performance criteria and test procedures are available in European Standards.
This document provides for the certification of AQME according to the requirements of EN ISO/IEC 17065:2012.
This document elaborates and supplements the requirements of EN ISO/IEC 17065:2012 for bodies certifying AQME. It specifies requirements on testing laboratories as well as the manufacturer’s quality management system (QMS) and the surveillance for the manufacturing process as part of the certification process.

  • Standard
    19 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the requirements for the manufacturer’s quality management system (QMS), the initial assessment of the manufacturer’s production control and the continuing surveillance of the effect of subsequent changes on the performance of certified air quality monitoring equipment (AQME).
This document also serves as a reference document for auditing the manufacturer’s QMS.
This document elaborates and supplements the requirements of EN ISO 9001:2015.

  • Standard
    16 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the requirements for the installation and on-going quality assurance and quality control of data acquisition and handling systems (DAHS). This includes requirements on:
-   installation (Clause 5);
-   quality assurance and quality control during QAL2 (Clause 6);
-   quality assurance and quality control during on-going operation (Clause 7);
-   annual functional test (Clause 8);
-   documentation (Clause 9).
This document supports the requirements of EN 14181 and legislation such as the IED [1], MCPD [2] and E-PRTR [3]. It does not preclude the use of additional features and functions provided the minimum requirements of this document are met and that these features do not adversely affect data quality, clarity or access.

  • Standard
    18 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document supports the elaboration of standardized measurement methods for the determination of stationary source emissions by manual or automated measurement methods.
This document describes the basic elements of standardized measurement methods for the determination of stationary source emissions.
This document is supplemented by an electronic template providing a uniform structure and common elements and texts.
NOTE   Detailed information on the electronic template is given in Annex A.
This document is addressed to working groups of CEN/TC 264 dealing with stationary source emissions. It aims at facilitating in the working groups the elaboration and the harmonization of documents produced by CEN/TC 264. Such documents can be European standards (EN), European Technical Specifications (CEN/TS) or European Technical Reports (CEN/TR).

  • Technical report
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies requirements for the calibration and validation (QAL2), the ongoing quality assurance during operation (QAL3) and the annual surveillance test (AST) of AMS used for monitoring total mercury emissions from stationary sources to demonstrate compliance with an emission limit value (ELV). This document is derived from EN 14181 and is only applicable in conjunction with EN 14181.
This document is applicable by direct correlation with the standard reference method (SRM) described in EN 13211.

  • Standard
    25 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the framework for determining emissions to the atmosphere of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). It specifies a system of methods to detect and/or identify and/or quantify VOC emissions from industrial sources. These methods include Optical Gas Imaging (OGI), Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), Solar Occultation Flux (SOF), Tracer Correlation (TC), and Reverse Dispersion Modelling (RDM). It specifies the methodologies for carrying out all the above, and also the performance requirements and capabilities of the direct monitoring methods, the requirements for the results and their measurement uncertainties.
This document specifically addresses, but is not restricted to, the petrochemicals, oil refining, and chemical industries receiving, processing, storing, and/or exporting of VOCs, and includes the emissions of VOCs from the natural gas processing/conditioning industry and the storage of natural gas and similar fuels. The methods specified in this document have been validated at onshore facilities.
This document is applicable to diffuse VOC emissions to atmosphere but not to the emissions of VOCs into water and into solid materials such as soils. It is complementary to EN 15446 [9], the standardized method for the detection, localization of sources (individual leaks from equipment and piping), and quantification of fugitive VOC emissions within the scope of a Leak Detection and Repair Programme (LDAR).
This document has been validated for non-methane VOCs, but the methodology is in principle applicable to methane and other gases.
This document specifies methods to determine (detect, identify and/or quantify) VOC emissions during the periods of monitoring. It does not address the extrapolation of emissions to time periods beyond the monitoring period.

  • Standard
    101 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document supplements the requirements of EN ISO/IEC 17043 by providing clarification and additional information for proficiency testing schemes for emission measurements. It gives specific requirements for:
—   competence of proficiency testing providers;
—   proficiency testing facility characteristics; and
—   design, operation and evaluation of proficiency testing schemes by means of interlaboratory comparisons.
All these aspects are necessary in order to organize and conduct proficiency testing on emission measurements.
Requirements on the competence of proficiency testing providers cover personnel, organisation, equipment and environment.
Requirements on the proficiency testing facility characteristics cover measurement sections, measurements ports and working area for the participants.
Requirements on the proficiency testing schemes cover:
—   design, including planning, preparations, homogeneity and stability of test atmospheres and statistical design;
—   operation, including handling and instruction of participants;
—   calculation and use of assigned values; and
—   testing results evaluation, including statistical data.
This document supports the application of proficiency testing schemes for checking the performance of testing laboratories in the context of qualification, accreditation and related quality checks in relation to the application of standardized measurement methods such as standard reference methods (SRM) or alternative methods (AM).
This document is applicable in combination with EN ISO/IEC 17043 only.

  • Standard
    23 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the objective determination of the odour concentration of a gaseous sample using dynamic olfactometry with human assessors. The standard also specifies a method for the determination of the emission rate of odours from stationary sources, in particular:
-   point sources (conveyed or ducted emissions);
-   active area sources (e.g. biofilters);
-   passive sources.
The primary application of this standard is to provide a common basis for evaluation of odour emissions.
When this document is used for the determination of the odour concentration or the odour emission rate of stationary source emissions, the other relevant European Standards concerning stationary source emissions apply, in particular EN 15259 and EN 16911-1, especially when measurements have to be in compliance with the relevant European Directives concerning industrial air emissions.
Even so, the analysis/quantification step of the measurement method described in this document (i.e. the determination of the odour concentration of an odorous gas sample, without respect to the origin of the sample itself) can be fully applied in many cases not related with industrial emission sources (e.g. the measurement of the mass concentration at the detection threshold of pure odorous substances, the determination of effectiveness of deodorizing systems for indoor air). In those latter cases, the requirements in this document concerning the measurement planning and the sampling of stationary sources  can be ignored or adapted.
This document is applicable to the measurement of odour concentration of pure substances, defined odorant compounds and undefined mixtures of odorant volatiles in air or nitrogen, using dynamic olfactometry with a panel of human assessors being the sensor. The unit of measurement is the European odour unit per cubic metre: ouE/m3. The odour concentration is measured by determining the dilution factor required to reach the detection threshold. The odour concentration at the detection threshold is by definition 1 ouE/m3. The odour concentration is then expressed in terms of multiples of the detection threshold. The range of measurement is typically from 101 ouE/m3 to 107 ouE/m3 (including pre dilution).
The field of application of this document includes:
-   the measurement of the mass concentration at the detection threshold of pure odorous substances in g/m3;
-   the determination of the EROM value of odorants, in mol;
-   the measurement of the odour concentration of mixtures of odorants in ouE/m3;
-   the measurement of the emission rate of odorous emissions from point sources, active area sources and passive area sources, including pre dilution during sampling;
-   the sampling of odorous gases from emissions of high humidity and temperature (up to 200 °C);
-   the determination of effectiveness of end-of-pipe mitigation techniques used to reduce odour emissions.
The determination of odour emissions requires measurement of gas velocityto determine the gas volume flow rate.
The field of application of this document does not include:
-   the measurement of odours potentially released by particles of odorous solids or droplets of odorous fluids suspended in emissions;
-   the measuring strategy to be applied in case of variable emission rates;
-   the measurement of the relationship between odour stimulus and assessor response above detection threshold (perceived intensity);
-   measurement of hedonic tone (or (un)pleasantness) or assessment of annoyance potential;
-   direct measurement of odour exposure in ambient air. For this measurement purpose, field panel methods exist which are the subject of CEN standard EN 16841-1, Ambient Air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection - Grid method;
-   direct olfactometry, including field olfactometry;
-   static olfactometry;
-   measurement of odour recognition thresholds;
-   measurement of odour identification thresholds.
.....

  • Standard
    124 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the performance test of data acquisition and handling systems (DAHS). This includes:
-   specification of test procedures;
-   description of laboratory tests;
-   requirements on the testing laboratory.
This document supports the requirements of EN 14181 and legislation such as the IED, MCPD and E-PRTR. It does not preclude the use of additional features and functions provided the minimum requirements of this document are met and that these features do not adversely affect data quality, clarity or access.

  • Standard
    15 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the general principles, including testing procedures and requirements, for the classification of performance of low-cost sensor systems for the monitoring of gaseous compounds in ambient air at fixed sites. The classification of sensor systems includes tests that are performed under prescribed laboratory and field conditions.
The procedure described is applicable to the determination of the mass concentration of air pollutants. The pollutants that are considered in this document are the gaseous pollutants regulated under Directive 2008/50/EC (O3, NO/NO2/NOx, CO, SO2 and benzene) in the range of concentrations expected in ambient air.
This document provides a classification that is consistent with the requirements for indicative measurements and objective estimation defined in Directive 2008/50/EC. In addition, it provides a classification for applications (non-regulatory measurements) that require more relaxed performance criteria.
This document applies to sensor systems used as individual systems. It does not apply to sensor systems as part of a sensor network. However, for some applications (e.g. in cities) sensor systems are deployed as part of a sensor network. Annex A gives information on the use of sensor systems as nodes in a sensor network.
This document gives guidance on the testing of CO2 sensor systems in Annex B since, although not listed in Directive 2008/50/EC, CO2 is an interesting indicator as proxy for activities involving combustion processes or for CO2 evaporation from soil or water.

  • Technical specification
    88 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the standard reference method (SRM) based on an automatic method for determination of the mass concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in ducts and stacks emitting to the atmosphere. It describes the sampling and gas conditioning system.
This document specifies the characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) using the infrared measurement method. It applies for periodic monitoring and for the calibration or control of automated measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
The infrared measurement method described in this document can be used as a SRM, provided the expanded uncertainty of the method is less than 20 % relative at the daily Emission Limit Value (ELV), or 1 mg/m3 for ELV below 5 mg/m3, and the criteria associated to performance characteristics described in EN 15267-4 for portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS), are fulfilled.
This document specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method (AM) to the SRM by application of EN 14793.

  • Standard
    42 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the reference method for the determination of the concentration of formaldehyde in emissions from stationary sources. Waste gas samples are taken by absorption in water and subsequently analysed by spectrophotometry or HPLC. The method applies to waste gases in which the formaldehyde concentration is 2 mg/m3 to 60 mg/m3, on dry basis, at the reference conditions of 273 K and 101,3 kPa.
The specific components and the requirements for the measuring system are described. A number of performance characteristics with associated minimum performance criteria are specified for the measuring system.

  • Technical specification
    46 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document contains specifications for active sampling of bioaerosols from exhaust air flowing through a defined cross-section of a stack. It defines general principles that have to be taken into account during an isokinetic sampling campaign for bioaerosols by bubbling the exhaust air through a specific impinger designed for emission measurements.
In this document the application with culturable organisms is specified but the same principle might be applicable for non-cultural based methods (e.g. molecular and/or enzyme-based methods).
The impinger is designed to allow a sample volume flow of 1 m3/h to 1,8 m3/h, or 16 l/min to 30 l/min, respectively, and has been tested with regard to various microorganisms within broad concentration ranges [1; 2; 3; 4]

  • Standard
    57 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC; AQD) identifies different uses for modelling: Assessment, planning, forecast and source apportionment (SA). This document addresses source apportionment modelling and specifies performance tests to check whether given criteria for receptor oriented source apportionment models (RM) are met. The scope of the tests set out in this document is the performance assessment of SA of particulate matter using RM in the context of the European Directives 2004/107/EC and AQD, including the Commission Implementing Decision 2011/850/EU of 12 December 2011. The application of RM does not quantify the spatial origin of particulate matter; hence, this document does not test spatial SA.
This document addresses RM users: practitioners of individual source apportionment studies as well as participants and organizers of source apportionment intercomparison studies. This document is suitable for the evaluation of results of a specific SA modelling system with respect to reference values (a priori known or calculated on the basis of intercomparison participants' values) in the following application areas:
-   Assessment of performance and uncertainties of a modelling system or modelling system set up using the indicators laid down in this document.
-   Testing and comparing different source apportionment outputs in a specific situation (applying an evaluation data set) using the indicators laid down in this document.
-   QA/QC tests every time practitioners run a modelling system.
It should be noted for clarity that the procedures and calculations presented in this document cannot be used to check the performance of a specific SA modelling result without having any a priori reference information about the contributions of sources/source categories.
NOTE   The application of this document implies that the intercomparison is organized and coordinated by an institution with the necessary technical capabilities and independence; the definition of which is beyond the scope of this document.
The principles of RM are summarized in Annex A. An overview of uncertainty sources and recommendations about steps to follow in SA studies are provided in Annex B and Annex C. For further information about SA methodologies, refer to e.g. [1; 2; 3].
There are methodologies different from RM which are widely used to accomplish SA, e.g. source oriented models. These other methodologies cover aspects of SA which are required in the AQD and are not addressed by RM (e.g. allocation of pollutants to geographic emission areas). Performance assessment of such methodologies is out of the scope of this document.

  • Technical specification
    29 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the sampling and analysis of NH3 in ambient air using diffusive sampling.
It can be used for NH3 measurements at ambient levels, but the concentration range and exposure time are sampler dependent, and the end user is therefore advised to match the sampler type to the measurement requirement and to follow the operating instructions provided by the manufacturer.

  • Standard
    45 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the quality assurance and quality control procedures related to automated dust arrestment plant monitors.
This document applies to two types of instruments commonly used for dust arrestment plant control purposes:
-   filter dust monitors that are configured in mass concentration units (e.g. mg/m3) and are used for dust arrestment control purposes;
-   filter leakage monitors that indicate a change in the emission levels or a change in the magnitude of the dust pulses created by the cleaning process of the dust arrestment plant.
This document applies to instruments certified according to the requirements of EN 15859.
This document provides information on the configuration, ongoing quality assurance (with automatic internal zero point and reference point checks) and annual surveillance tests of instruments. This ensures that the instrument is providing information to demonstrate that the dust arrestment plant is working correctly and controlling dust pollution to the required levels.
The configuration of the alarm levels of filter dust monitors is performed by parallel measurements with the standard reference method in EN 13284 1.
This document specifies the set-up of filter leakage monitors used to monitor a change in response caused by deterioration in the operation of the dust arrestment plant.

  • Standard
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document describes procedures to assess the applicability of the standard method EN 16909 (determination of OC and EC deposited on filters) to particle size fractions up to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (50 % cut off).

  • Technical report
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the performance requirements on data acquisition and handling systems (DAHS) regarding implementation of the procedures defined in EN 17255-1 including
— data acquisition;
— data processing;
— data storage;
— data output;
— generation of reports;
— system functions;
— data security;
— documentation.
This document supports the requirements of EN 14181 and legislation such as the IED and E-PRTR. It does not preclude the use of additional features and functions provided the minimum requirements of this document are met and that these features do not adversely affect data quality, clarity or access.

  • Standard
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies a manual method for the determination of the concentration of fluorinated compounds expressed in HF. Two cases are presented:
- first case: the measurand is the concentration of hydrofluoric acid and gaseous and bound to particulates fluorides,
- second case: the measurand is the concentration of hydrofluoric acid and gaseous fluorides.
Three analytical techniques are proposed: ionometry, spectrophotometry and ion-exchange chromatography.
This European Standard specifies the performance characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled when it is used as the Standard Reference Method (SRM) for periodic monitoring and for calibration or control of Automated Measuring Systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This document applies to more or less dust-laden flue gases whose HF concentration may vary between 0,1 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3, at standard conditions of pressure and temperature. The quantification limit of the method is estimated at 0.1 mg/m3 for a sampled volume of 0.1 m3.

  • Technical specification
    71 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the reference method (RM) for the measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) based on the infrared (IR) absorption principle. It includes the sampling and the gas conditioning system, and allows the determination of the CO2 in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere from ducts and stacks. This document specifies the measurement of the total CO2 concentration and does not differentiate between biogenic and fossil derived CO2.
This document specifies the characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) using the IR measurement method. It applies for periodic monitoring and for the calibration or control of automated measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.

  • Technical specification
    34 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a manual method of measurement including sampling and different analytical methods for the determination of the mass concentration of ammonia (NH3) in the waste gas of industrial plants, for example combustion plants or agricultural plants. All compounds which are volatile at the sampling temperature and produce ammonium ions upon dissociation during sampling in the absorption solution are measured by this method, which gives the volatile ammonia content of the waste gas.
This document specifies an independent method of measurement, which has been validated in field tests in a NH3 concentration range of approximately 8 mg/m3 to 65 mg/m3 at standard conditions. The lower limit of the validation range was determined under operational conditions of a test plant. The measurement method can be used at lower values depending, for example, on the sampling duration, sampling volume and the limit of detection of the analytical method used.
NOTE 1    The plant, the conditions during field tests and the performance characteristics obtained in the field are given in Annex A.
This method of measurement can be used for intermittent monitoring of ammonia emissions as well as for the calibration and validation of permanently installed automated ammonia measuring systems.
NOTE 2    An independent method of measurement is called standard reference method (SRM) in EN 14181.

  • Standard
    52 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document describes a standard method for determining particle number size distributions in ambient air in the size range from 10 nm to 800 nm at total concentrations up to approximately 10^5 cm^-3 with a time resolution of a few minutes. The standard method is based on a Mobility Particle Size Spectrometer (MPSS) used with a bipolar diffusion charger and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as the detector. The document describes the performance characteristics and minimum requirements of the instruments and equipment to be used, and describes sampling, operation, data processing and QA/QC procedures, including calibration.

  • Technical specification
    63 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the conversion of raw data from an automated measuring system (AMS) to reported data by a data acquisition and handling system (DAHS). This specification includes:
- requirements for the handling of data,
- requirements for the reporting of data,
- calculation procedures required.
The main items covered by this European Standard are given by, but not limited to raw data acquisition, raw data validation, data correction and data averaging.
This European Standard supports the requirements of EN 14181 and legislation such as the IED and E-PRTR. It does not preclude the use of additional features and functions provided the minimum requirements of this European Standard are met and that these features do not adversely affect data quality, clarity or access.

  • Standard
    40 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the procedure to sample continuously and to analyse the concentration of airborne pollen grains and fungal spores in ambient air using the volumetric Hirst type sampler [1] [2] [3] (see Annex A) or an even equivalent method assuring comparable data.
This document describes both the sampling and the analysis procedures for the purpose of networks related to allergy. For the other tasks mentioned in the introduction, other specifications may be required.

  • Standard
    38 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document describes a method for sampling and determining the concentration of gaseous emissions to atmosphere of multiple species from ducts and stacks by extractive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
This method is applicable to periodic monitoring and to the calibration or control of automated measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.

  • Technical specification
    60 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The purpose of this document is to establish performance benchmarks for, and to evaluate the acceptability of, sorbent trap monitoring systems used to monitor total vapour- phase mercury (Hg) emissions in stationary source flue gas streams. These monitoring systems involve continuous repetitive in-flue sampling using paired sorbent traps with subsequent analysis of the time-integrated samples.
This document is suitable for both short-term (periodic) measurements and long-term (continuous) monitoring using sorbent traps.
NOTE   When this Technical Specification has been validated, the sorbent trap method will be an Alternative Method subject to the restrictions on applicability defined below. Until that time, EN 13211 is the only accepted Reference Method for both short-term (periodic) measurements and for calibrating continuous monitoring systems, including those with long-term sampling systems. EN 13211 is a wet chemistry approach that relies on absorption of mercury into impinger solutions.
The substance measured according to this specification is the total vapour phase mercury in the flue gas, which represents the sum of the elemental mercury (Hg0) and gaseous forms of oxidized mercury (Hg2+), such as mercury (II) chloride, in mass concentration units of micrograms (μg) per dry meter cubed (m3). The analytical range is typically 0,1 to greater than 50 µg/m3.
The sorbent tube approach is intended for use under relatively low particulate conditions (typically less than 100 mg/m3) when monitoring downstream of all pollution control devices, e.g. at coal fired power plants and cement plants. In this case, the contribution of mercury in the particulate fraction is considered to be negligible (typically less than 5 % of total mercury). However, it shall be noted that the sorbent trap does take account of the finest particle fraction that is sampled with the flue gas, in addition to capturing the vapour phase mercury.
This specification also contains routine procedures and specifications that are designed to evaluate the ongoing performance of an installed sorbent trap monitoring system. The operator of the industrial installation is responsible for the correct calibration, maintenance and operation of this long-term sampling system. Additional requirements for calibration and quality assurance of the long-term sampling system are then defined in EN 14884 and EN 14181.

  • Technical specification
    62 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This Technical Specification gives requirements for the certification of PEMS software and for the performance and quality assurance for a PEMS to prove suitability for its measuring task and to ensure that the PEMS continues to perform within the specified performance during operation of the PEMS.

  • Technical specification
    55 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) for the measurement of low dust concentration in ducted gaseous streams in the concentrations below 50 mg/m3 at standard conditions.
This European Standard is primarily developed and validated for gaseous streams emitted by waste incinerators. More generally, it can be applied to gases emitted from other stationary sources, and to higher concentrations.
If the gases contain unstable, reactive or semi-volatile substances, the measurement depends on the sampling and filter treatment conditions.
This method has been validated in field tests with special emphasis to dust concentrations around 5 mg/m3. The results of the field tests are presented in Annex A.

  • Standard
    63 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies requirements for the calibration and validation (QAL2), the ongoing quality assurance during operation (QAL3) and the annual surveillance test (AST) of automated measuring systems (AMS) used for monitoring dust emissions from stationary sources to demonstrate compliance with emission limit values (ELV) below 50 mg/m3 at standard conditions. It specifically deals with measurements in wet gases and at low concentrations.
This document is derived from EN 14181 and is only applicable in conjunction with EN 14181.
This document is applicable by direct correlation with the standard reference method (SRM) described in EN 13284-1.

  • Standard
    33 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the mass concentration of water soluble NO3- (nitrate), SO42- (sulphate), Cl- (chloride), NH4+ (ammonium), Na+ (sodium), K+ (potassium), Mg2+ (magnesium), Ca2+ (calcium) in PM2,5 as deposited on filters.
This European Standard describes the analytical procedures for determining anions and cations as part of the PM2,5 particulate phase, sample extraction and analysis of anions and cations by ion chromatography. Sampling onto filters will be done in accordance with EN 12341 for PM2,5.
NOTE 1   Alternatively, cations, excluding ammonium, can be analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Ammonium can also be analysed by photometry or conductometry.
This European Standard can be used for the measurements of anions and cations as required by Directive 2008/50/EC. The method does not take into account the possible losses during sampling due to evaporation.
NOTE 2   NO3-, Cl-, NH4+ are part of the volatile fraction of PM2,5, and the concentrations determined using this standard can be used as minimum values for the concentrations of these ions in PM2,5. NO3-, NH4+, Cl- are usually up to 30 % underestimated due to evaporational losses from the filter during sampling.
This European Standard may be used at rural and urban background sites and road sites that are in accordance with the siting criteria of Directive 2008/50/EC.
This European Standard is applicable to the measurement of anion/cations in PM2,5 samples corresponding to PM2,5 mass concentrations between approximately 1 μg/m3 (i.e. the limit of detection of the standard measurement method (EN 12341) expressed as its uncertainty) up to 120 μg/m3.
The validated range of the anion and cation concentrations based on the field validation measurements is presented in Table 1.
(...)
See Annex A for the statistical analysis of the field validation measurements.

  • Standard
    46 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

In order to be in compliance with EU Air Quality Directive requirements, the reference methods given in the Directive 2008/50/EC [1] for the measurement of mass concentrations of particulate matter are not commonly used for operation in routine monitoring networks. These networks usually apply automated continuous measurement systems (AMS), such as those based on the use of oscillating microbalances, ß-ray attenuation, or in-situ optical methods. Such AMS are typically capable of producing 24-hour average measurement values over a measurement range up to 1 000 µg/m3 and 1-hour average measurement values up to 10 000 µg/m3, if applicable, where the volume of air is the volume at ambient conditions near the inlet at the time of sampling.
The 1-hour average values may be used for:
a)   direct information of the public;
b)   aggregation to produce daily or yearly average concentration values for regulatory reporting purposes.
Directive 2008/50/EC allows the use of such systems after demonstration of equivalence with the reference method, i.e. after demonstration that these systems meet the Data Quality Objectives for continuous measurements. Guidelines for the demonstration of equivalence are given in Reference [2].
This European Standard lays down the minimum performance requirements and test procedures for the type approval of appropriate AMS for particulate matter. This includes the evaluation of its equivalence with the reference method as laid down in Directive 2008/50/EC.
Further, this European Standard describes minimum requirements for ongoing quality assurance – quality control (QA/QC) of AMS deployed in the field. These requirements are necessary to ensure that uncertainties of measured concentrations are kept within the required limits during extended periods of continuous monitoring in the field, and include procedures for maintenance, calibration and control checks.
Additional procedures are described that determine whether an instrument’s equivalence to the reference method is maintained through possible pollution climate changes, over periods longer than five years.
Lastly, this European Standard describes harmonized requirements and procedures for the treatment and validation of raw measurement data that are used for the assembly of daily or yearly average concentration values. Experience with existing methods for data treatment and validation – for similar AMS – has shown that the different ways of data treatment and validation applied may lead to significant differences in reported results for similar datasets [3].
When the European Standard is used for purposes other than measurements required by Directive 2008/50/EC, the range and uncertainty requirements may not apply.
This European Standard contains information for different groups of users.
Clauses 5 and 6 and Annex A contain general information about the principles of automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter, and relevant equipment.
Clause 7 and Annexes B and C are specifically directed towards test houses and laboratories that perform type-approval testing of automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter. These clauses contain information about:
c)   type-approval test conditions, test procedures and test requirements;
d)   system performance requirements;
e)   evaluation of the type-approval test results;
f)   evaluation of the uncertainty of the measurement results of the automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter based on the type-approval test results.
Clauses 8 to 11 are aimed at monitoring networks performing the practical measurements of particulate matter in ambient air. These clauses contain information about:
g)   initial installation of the system in the monitoring network and acceptance testing;
h)   ongoing quality assurance/quality control;
i)   on-going verification of suitability;
j)   treatment, validation and reporting of measurement results.

  • Standard
    50 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard gives guidance on the measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) following the requirement for the networks of all EU member states to measure EC and OC in particulate matter from June 2010 at background sites according to the Council Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe [1].
This European Standard describes the analytical procedures for determining EC and OC on quartz fibre filters as μg/cm2, and the subsequent calculation of concentrations as µg/m3. Sampling onto filters is to be done in accordance with EN 12341:2014 for PM2,5. The sampling process determines the size fraction of the particulate matter, the retention of semi-volatile material, and uptake/loss of volatile organic compounds on the filter at the time of sampling.
The same analysis method may also be used for smaller size fractions than PM2,5. Any possible additional artefacts for larger particles, e.g. pyrolysis or higher concentrations of carbonates, should be assessed.
The scope includes rural background, urban background, road side and industrial measurement sites, to allow the assessment of additional exposure of people in urban areas as stated in the objectives of the council directive and to achieve coherence in the European approach.
The applicable concentration range of the proposed method is limited by the optical correction and instrument applied in the analysis of EC and OC. This method was validated from 0,2 µg CEC/cm² and 1,8 µg COC/cm² to 38 µg CEC/cm² and 49 µg COC/cm² in the laboratory and to 16 µg CEC/cm² and 45 µg COC/cm² in the field.

  • Standard
    56 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) based on the chemiluminescence principle for the determination of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere from ducts and stacks. It includes the sampling and the gas conditioning system, as well as the analyser.
This European Standard specifies the characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by measuring systems based on this measurement method. It applies for periodic monitoring and for the calibration or control of automatic measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This European Standard specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method to the SRM by application of prEN 14793.
This European standard has been validated during field tests on waste incineration, co-incineration and large combustion installations and on a recognized test-bench. It has been validated for sampling periods of 30 min in the range of 0 mg/m3 to 1 300 mg/m3 of NO2 for large combustion plants and 0 mg/m3 to 400 mg/m3 of NO2 for waste incineration, according to emission limit values (ELV) laid down in the Directive 2010/75/EC.
The ELV for NOx (NO + NO2) in EU directives are expressed in mg/m3 of NO2 on a dry basis, at a specified value for oxygen and at reference conditions (273 K and 101,3 kPa).
NOTE    The characteristics of installations, the conditions during field tests and the values of repeatability and reproducibility in the field are given in Annex F.

  • Standard
    56 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) for the determination of the sulphuric oxide SO2 in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere from ducts and stacks. It is based on a sampling system and two analytical principles: ion chromatography and the Thorin method.
This European Standard specifies the performance characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by measuring systems based on the measurement method. It applies to periodic monitoring and to the calibration or control of automatic measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This European Standard specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method to the SRM by application of prEN 14793.
This European Standard has been evaluated during field tests on waste incineration, co-incineration and large combustion installations. It has been validated for sampling periods of 30 min in the range of 0,5 mg/m³ to 2 000 mg/m³ of SO2 for an ion-chromatography variant and 5 mg/m³ to 2 000 mg/m³ of SO2 for the Thorin method according to emission limit values laid down in the Directive 2010/75/EC.
The limit values of EU Directives are expressed in units of mg/m³ of SO2 on dry basis and at standard conditions of 273 K and 101,3 kPa.
NOTE   The characteristics of installations, the conditions during field tests and the values of repeatability and reproducibility in the field are given in Annex E.

  • Standard
    69 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day
  • Standard
    69 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) based on the paramagnetic principle for the determination of the oxygen concentrations in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere from ducts and stacks. It includes the sampling and the gas conditioning system as well as the analyser.
This European Standard specifies the performance characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by measuring systems based on this measurement method. It applies to periodic monitoring and the calibration or control of automated measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This European Standard specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method (AM) to the SRM by application of prEN 14793.
This European Standard has been validated during field tests on waste incineration, co-incineration and large combustion plants and on a recognized test bench. It has been validated for sampling periods of 30 min in the range from 3 % to 21 %. Oxygen concentration values, expressed as volume concentrations, are used to allow results of emission measurements to be standardised to the oxygen reference concentration and dry gas conditions required e.g. by EU Directive 2010/75/EC on industrial emissions.
NOTE   The characteristics of installations, the conditions during field tests and the values of repeatability and reproducibility in the field are given in Annex A.

  • Standard
    41 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) based on the infra-red (IR) absorption principle. It includes the sampling and the gas conditioning system, and allows the determination of the carbon monoxide CO in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere from ducts and stacks.
This European Standard specifies the characteristics to be determined and the performance criteria to be fulfilled by measuring systems using the IR measurement method. It applies for periodic monitoring and for the calibration or control of automatic measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This European Standard specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method (AM) to the SRM by application of prEN 14793.
This European Standard has been validated during field tests on waste incineration, co-incineration and large combustion plants and on a recognized test bench. It has been validated for CO concentrations with sampling periods of 30 min in the range of 0 mg/m3 to 400 mg/m3 for large combustion plants and 0 mg/m3 to 740 mg/m3 for waste and co-incineration. Directive 2010/75/EC lays down emission values which are expressed in mg/m3, on dry basis at a specified value of oxygen and at standard conditions of 273 K and 101,3 kPa.
NOTE    The characteristics of installations, the conditions during field tests and the values of repeatability and reproducibility in the field are given in Annex A.

  • Standard
    50 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the standard reference method (SRM) based on a sampling system with a condensation/adsorption technique to determine the water vapour concentration in the flue gases emitted to atmosphere from ducts and stacks.
This European Standard specifies the performance characteristics to be determined and performance criteria to be fulfilled by measuring systems based on the measurement method. It applies to periodic monitoring and to the calibration or control of automated measuring systems (AMS) permanently installed on a stack, for regulatory or other purposes.
This European Standard specifies criteria for demonstration of equivalence of an alternative method to the SRM by application of prEN 14793.
This European Standard is applicable in the range of water vapour content from 4 % to 40 % as volume concentrations and of water vapour mass concentration from 29 g/m3 to 250 g/m3 as a wet gas, although for a given temperature the upper limit of the method is related to the maximum pressure of water in air or in the gas.
In this European Standard all the concentrations are expressed at standard conditions (273 K and 101,3 kPa).
NOTE 1   For saturated conditions the condensation/adsorption method is not applicable. Some guidance is given in this European Standard to deal with flue gas when droplets are present.
This European Standard has been evaluated during field tests on waste incineration, co-incineration and large combustion plants. It has been validated for sampling periods of 30 min in the volume concentration range of 7 % to 26 %.
NOTE 2   The characteristics of installations, the conditions during field tests and the values of repeatability and reproducibility in the field are given in Annex A.

  • Standard
    43 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies a procedure to demonstrate the equivalence of an alternative method (AM) with the reference method (RM) or the standard reference method (SRM), both implemented to determine the same measurand.
In particular, this European Standard provides the statistical tools and different criteria to evaluate the alternative method. This does not release the body performing the equivalence testing from bearing technical and analytical judgement on the evaluation of the different criteria.
Three steps are required for demonstration of equivalence:
   description of the alternative method and setting of the field of application (measurement range and type of gas matrix);
   determination of the performance characteristics of the alternative method and calculation of the expanded uncertainty where appropriate and check of compliance with the maximum expanded uncertainty allowed for the reference method;
   check of repeatability and lack of systematic deviation of the alternative method in the field or on a recognized test bench in comparison with the reference method for the type of matrix defined in the field of equivalence.
This European Standard requires that a reference method has been defined and validated.
This European Standard only considers the case of linear quantitative methods.
This European Standard has been drawn up for laboratories working in air quality measurements and consequently an example taken from this sector are presented in Annex A.

  • Standard
    34 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This part of the European Standard describes the grid method for the determination of the level of odour exposure in ambient air. It provides a set of instructions for measurement of ambient odour exposure within a defined assessment area, using qualified human panel members, over a sufficiently long period of time to be representative for the meteorological conditions of that location, and hence determine the distribution of the frequency of exposure to odours within the assessment area. The sources of the odorant under study may be located within or outside the assessment area.
The primary application of this European Standard is to provide a common basis for evaluation of exposure to ambient odours in the member states of the European Union. The field of application of this type of measurement is to characterize the level of odour exposure within the study area, in order to assess whether the impact of that exposure on resident population could be a justified cause for annoyance, using exposure criteria. The unit of measurement of the method is the frequency of odour hours for an assessment square, defined by four measurement points as a representative value for odour exposure for local conditions, e.g. local odour sources and the meteorology of that location.
This European Standard does not include:
-   the measurement of intensity of ambient odours,
-   the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours,
-   the calculation of odour exposure in specific weather conditions in order to determine the frequency distribution of recognizable odour in an odorant plume,
-   the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling.
An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A, including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according to EN 13725.

  • Standard
    57 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This part of the European Standard describes the plume method for determining the extent of recognizable odours from a specific source using direct observation in the field by human panel members under specific meteorological conditions.
The plume method involves the determination of the presence or absence (YES/NO) of recognizable odours in and around the plume originating from a specific odorant emission source, for a specific emission situation and under specific meteorological conditions (specific wind direction, wind speed and boundary layer turbulence). The unit of measurement is the presence or absence of recognizable odours at a particular location downwind of a source. The extent of the plume is assessed as the transition of absence to presence of recognizable odour.
The primary application of this standard is to provide a common basis for the determination of the odour plume extent in the member states of the European Union.
The results are typically used to determine a plausible extent of potential exposure to recognizable odours, or to estimate the total emission rate based on the plume extent, using reverse dispersion modelling.
The field of application of this European Standard includes the determination of the extent of the recognizable odour plume downwind from a source, under specific meteorological conditions (e.g. wind direction, wind speed, turbulence, etc. (see 7.3.2).
This European Standard does not include:
-   the measurement of intensity of ambient odours;
-   the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours;
-   the measurement of the odour exposure in ambient air over a longer time period in an assessment area;
-   the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling.
An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according EN 13725.

  • Standard
    43 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This CEN Technical Report provides guidance only on the application of the European Standard EN ISO 16911-1:2013.
This CEN Technical Report does not provide guidance on the application of EN ISO 16911-2:2013.

  • Technical report
    40 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard applies to the determination of the impact of ground-level ozone on a bioindicator plant species (tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Bel-W3, Bel-B and Bel-C) in a given environment.
The present document specifies the procedure for setting-up and use of a system designed to expose these plants to ambient air. It also describes the procedure for leaf injury assessment.
Leaf injury caused by ozone appears in the form of necrosis or accelerated aging (senescence) on the leaves of the bioindicator. The macroscopically detectable leaf injury is used as the effect measure (see pictures in Annex A). The measure is the percentage of dead leaf area on the entire leaf surface.
The results of the standardised tobacco exposure indicate ozone-caused injury of the exposed bioindicators and thus enable a spatial and temporal distribution of the impact of ozone on plants to be determined.
This Standard applies to the outside atmosphere in all environments. This standard does not apply to the assessment of air quality inside buildings.
The method described in this European Standard does not replace modelling or physico-chemical methods of direct measurement of air pollutants, it complements them by demonstrating the biological effect.
The method described in this European Standard does not replace modelling or physico-chemical methods of direct measurement of air pollutants, it complements them by demonstrating the biological effect.

  • Standard
    35 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies a harmonized method for calculating the emissions of greenhouse gases from the electrolysis section of primary aluminium smelters and aluminium anode baking plants. It also specifies key performance indicators for the purpose of benchmarking of aluminium. This also defines the boundaries.
NOTE   Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of this standard.

  • Standard
    24 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This European Standard specifies the principles and requirements for the determination of GHG emissions from sector-specific sources as of the steel and iron, cement, aluminium, lime and ferroalloy producing industry.
This European Standard specifies in particular definitions and rules valid to all above enlisted sector-specific standards, provides common methodological issues and defines the details for applying the rules for the harmonized methods, which include:
a)   measuring, testing and quantifying methods for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the above mentioned sector-specific sources in the cited standards;
b)   assessment of the level of GHG emissions performance of production processes over time, at production sites;
c)   establishment and provision of reliable, accurate and quality information for reporting and verification purposes.
The application of this standard to the other sector-specific standards in this series ensures accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the obtained results and is for this reason a normative reference standard, umbrella standard respectively.

  • Standard
    38 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day