Ergonomics data and guidelines for the application of ISO/IEC Guide 71 to products and services to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying
ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists
and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments,
and facilities.
The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and
capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research.
The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory,
physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomics data that have no direct
relation to ageing or disabilities.
The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of
human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.

Ergonomische Daten und Leitlinien für die Anwendung des ISO/IEC Guide 71 für Produkte und Dienstleistungen zur Berücksichtigung der Belange älterer und behinderter Menschen (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

Données d'ergonomie et lignes directrices pour l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71 aux produits et services afin de répondre aux besoins des personnes âgées et de celles ayant des incapacités (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

Ergonomski podatki in smernice za uporabo ISO/IEC Vodila 71 za proizvode in storitve, ki upoštevajo potrebe starejših in invalidnih oseb (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Jan-2021
Due Date
03-Apr-2021
Completion Date
16-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2011
Ergonomski podatki in smernice za uporabo ISO/IEC Vodila 71 za proizvode in

storitve, ki upoštevajo potrebe starejših in invalidnih oseb (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

Ergonomics data and guidelines for the application of ISO/IEC Guide 71 to products and

services to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities (ISO/DTR

22411:2020)
Ergonomische Daten und Leitlinien für die Anwendung des ISO/IEC Guide 71 für

Produkte und Dienstleistungen zur Berücksichtigung der Belange älterer und behinderter

Menschen (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)

Données d'ergonomie et lignes directrices pour l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71 aux

produits et services afin de répondre aux besoins des personnes âgées et de celles

ayant des incapacités (ISO/DTR 22411:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
ICS:
01.120 Standardizacija. Splošna Standardization. General
pravila rules
11.180.01 Pripomočki za Aids for disabled and
onesposobljene in handicapped persons in
hendikepirane osebe na general
splošno
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
CEN ISO/TR 22411
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
January 2021
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 01.120; 11.180.01 Supersedes CEN ISO/TR 22411:2011
English Version
Ergonomics data for use in the application of ISO/IEC
Guide 71:2014 (ISO/TR 22411:2021)

Données ergonomiques destinées à être utilisées dans Ergonomische Daten und Leitlinien für die Anwendung

le cadre de l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71:2014 des ISO/IEC Guide 71 für Produkte und

(ISO/TR 22411:2021) Dienstleistungen zur Berücksichtigung der Belange
älterer und behinderter Menschen (ISO/TR
22411:2021)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 December 2020. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

122.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TR 22411:2011.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TR 22411:2021 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 22411
Second edition
2021-01
Ergonomics data for use in the
application of ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014
Données ergonomiques destinées à être utilisées dans le cadre de
l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71:2014
Reference number
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Supporting ISO/IEC Guide 71 with human data ................................................................................................................... 2

5 Data selection and format ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Data selection ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Data format of this document .................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 How to use the data ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Sensory characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Overview of sensory characteristics and capabilities ........................................................................................... 5

6.2 Vision ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Visual sensitivity to colour (spectral sensitivity of the eye: ageing effect).................... 6

6.2.2 Colour category (spans of fundamental colour, young people, older

people, and people with low vision) ............................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Colour category (international comparison) .......................................................................................22

6.2.4 Contrast sensitivity (young people, older people and people with low vision) .....25

6.2.5 Contrast for legibility (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................28

6.2.6 Visual acuity (effects of age, viewing distance and luminance) ...........................................32

6.2.7 Minimum font size for legibility (effects of age, viewing distance and

luminance) .........................................................................................................................................................................35

6.2.8 Minimum font size for legibility (international comparison) ................................................37

6.2.9 Minimum font size for legibility (low vision) .................. .....................................................................41

6.2.10 Disability glare (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................44

6.2.11 Useful field of view (ageing effect) ................................................................................................................47

6.2.12 Lighting level and visual performance (ageing effect) .................................................................52

6.2.13 Visibility of an indicator lamp: Context and task specific data (effects of

ageing and low vision) .............................................................................................................................................55

6.3 Hearing .......................................................................................................................................................................................................58

6.3.1 Hearing-sensitivity decrease as a function of age ............................................................................58

6.3.2 Tone perception in quiet conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................60

6.3.3 Sensitivity to low-frequency tones (ageing effect) ..........................................................................62

6.3.4 Equal-loudness-level contours (ageing effect) ...................................................................................64

6.3.5 Tone perception in noisy conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................67

6.3.6 Sound pressure level of spoken announcements in public space (ageing effect) .70

6.3.7 Audible conditions for speech communication in a noisy environment

(ageing effect) ..................................................................................................................................................................72

6.4 Touch ............................................................................................................................................................................................................75

6.4.1 Tactile pressure sense and spatial resolution (ageing effect) ................................................75

6.4.2 Tactile spatial resolution (people with visual disabilities) ......................................................77

6.4.3 Tactile spatial resolution (body location and ageing effect) ...................................................78

6.4.4 Tactile temporal resolution (sensitivity to vibration, ageing effect) ................................81

6.4.5 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (effects of ageing and
experience in the use of tactile symbols and characters for people with

visual disabilities) ........................................................................................................................................................83

6.4.6 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (international comparison) ...................85

6.5 Thermal sense ......................................................................................................................................................................................88

6.5.1 Surface temperature (ageing effect) ............................................................................................................88

6.5.2 Air temperature (ageing effect) .......................................................................................................................89

6.5.3 Thermal comfort (physical disabilities) ...................................................................................................92

7 Physical characteristics and capabilities .................................................................................................................................99

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7.1 Overview of physical characteristics and capabilities .......................................................................................99

7.2 Physical characteristics related to body size ......... ..................................................................................................101

7.2.1 Basic body size (design range from small to large size) ..........................................................101

7.2.2 Grip diameter (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................104

7.3 Movement – fine hand use abilities .................................................................................................................................106

7.3.1 Hand steadiness (ageing effect) ....................................................................................................................106

7.3.2 Eye-hand coordination (dexterity, ageing effect) ..........................................................................107

7.4 Movement – functions of upper body structure ...................................................................................................110

7.4.1 Reach range (effects of ageing and stature) .......................................................................................110

7.4.2 Reach range (graspability, female 5 percentile of body size) ..........................................115

7.4.3 Reach range in three dimensions of height, forward distance (depth), and
left-right width for older people and people with disabilities (rheumatism

and Parkinson’s disease) ....................................................................................................................................117

7.4.4 Rotation: pronation and supination (ageing effect) ....................................................................120

7.5 Movement – Functions of lower body structure ..................................................................................................123

7.5.1 Step height (ageing effect) .................................................................................................................................123

7.5.2 Step height: Subjective evaluation of physical load (ageing effect,

international comparison) ................................................................................................................................126

7.5.3 Tread depth of stairs (ageing effect) .........................................................................................................128

7.5.4 Walking speed (ageing effect) ........................................................................................................................130

7.5.5 Slope of ramps and wheelchair operation (physical disabilities) ...................................133

7.6 Muscle strength and muscle endurance ......................................................................................................................134

7.6.1 Grip force of the hand (ageing effect) ......................................................................................................134

7.6.2 Pressing force of the thumb .............................................................................................................................136

7.6.3 Compressive force of the index finger .....................................................................................................138

7.6.4 Operating torque in four different conditions ..................................................................................140

7.6.5 Grip strength (ageing effect)............................................................................................................................144

7.6.6 Lifting strength (gender effect) .....................................................................................................................147

7.6.7 Lifting strength (effects of age and gender) .......................................................................................150

7.6.8 Pushing force with two hands (ageing effect) ..................................................................................152

7.6.9 Pulling force with one hand (ageing effect) ........................................................................................154

7.6.10 Pushing force with a finger (ageing effect) .........................................................................................156

7.6.11 Static torque with two hands (ageing effect) ....................................................................................158

7.6.12 Torque and force for opening packages (effects of ageing and disabilities) ..........160

7.6.13 Jar opening (perceived effort, older women) ....................................................................................164

7.6.14 Upper extremity muscle strength (ageing effect) .........................................................................166

8 Cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..........................................................................................................................170

8.1 Overview of cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................170

8.2 Attention .................................................................................................................................................................................................171

8.2.1 Selective attention (selective listening, effect of age) ................................................................171

8.2.2 Dual task performance (task complexity, ageing effect)..........................................................175

8.2.3 Memory under dual task conditions (effects of dual tasks and ageing) ....................177

8.3 Information processing .............................................................................................................................................................180

8.3.1 Processing speed and capacity ......................................................................................................................180

8.4 Memory ...................................................................................................................................................................................................182

8.4.1 Effects of ageing and cognitive disabilities on memory ...........................................................182

8.5 Language and literacy .................................................................................................................................................................184

8.5.1 Language use (ageing effects) ........................................................................................................................184

Annex A (informative) Additional textual descriptions of figures ..................................................................................186

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................234

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 122, Ergonomics, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 22411:2008), which has been

technically revised.

The main change compared to the previous edition is the replacement of ergonomics data on

human abilities and capabilities with new or more elaborated data for use in the application of

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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Introduction

This document is intended to help standards developers by providing ergonomics data related to

human characteristics and capabilities to support ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014. This document is supposed to

be used mainly by standards developers, but also by those responsible for design. The underlying idea

is that products, services and environments encountered in all aspects of daily life and intended for the

consumer market and the workplace should be designed to be accessible for people with a widest range

of capabilities. This idea, called accessibility, has been spreading all over the world.

ISO/IEC Guide 71 was first published in 2001 to successfully address the importance of being aware

of the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities and to direct the attention of standards

developers to these needs when they draft or revise standards. In response to the publication of

ISO/IEC Guide 71, ISO/TR 22411:2008 was developed to fulfil the gap between the concept and practice

with offering ergonomic knowledge and data on human abilities.

After more than 10 years from the publication of ISO/IEC Guide 71 and ISO/TR 22411, together with

new knowledge and experience in implementing these documents, ISO/IEC Guide 71 was revised into a

more elaborated one and consequently the revision of ISO/TR 22411 was required.

This document provides updated ergonomics data as well as newly available data which are all publicly

available and can be used to support standards developers in applying ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 in their

individual standards. These ergonomics data help standards developers to understand characteristics

and capabilities of diverse users to be served by requirements and recommendations in a standard.

The data provided in this document apply mainly to persons with disabilities and older persons.

The intention in using these data is to formulate requirements and recommendations in standards

that include the widest possible range of users. It can also be used by designers in order to increase

accessibility as part of accessible design or universal design.

While the data covers a wide area of human abilities related to accessibility, data for some part of the

area, for example cognitive abilities, is still missing. Furthermore, new data emerged or were updated

during the development of this document, which is not included in this document either. This document,

due to scientific reasons, does not necessarily adopt the ICF terminology but established terms in

ergonomics.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 22411:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Ergonomics data for use in the application of ISO/IEC
Guide 71:2014

IMPORTANT — The electronic file of this document contains colours which are considered to be

useful for the correct understanding of the document. Users should therefore consider printing

this document using a colour printer.
1 Scope

This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists

and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments,

and facilities.

The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and

capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research.

The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory,

physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomics data that have no direct

relation to ageing or disabilities.

The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of

human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from a

population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve identified

goals in identified contexts of use

Note 1 to entry: Context of use includes direct use or use supported by assistive technologies.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-112:2017, 3.15]
3.2
accessible design

design focused on diverse users to maximize the number of potential users who can readily use a

system in diverse contexts

Note 1 to entry: This aim can be achieved by (1) designing systems that are readily usable by most users without

any modification, (2) making systems adaptable to different users (by providing adaptable user interfaces) and

(3) having standardized interfaces to be compatible with assistive products and assistive technology.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: Terms such as universal design, accessible design, design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive

design and transgenerational design are often used interchangeably with the same meaning.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.19]
3.3
impairment
problem in body function or structure related to a significant deviation or loss

Note 1 to entry: Impairments can be temporary or permanent; progressive, regressive or static; intermittent or

continuous.
[SOURCE: ICF 2001, WHO]
3.4
system

product, service, or built environment or any combination of them with which the user interacts

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.1]
3.5
universal design

design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest

extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design

Note 1 to entry: Universal design shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups or

...

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