Education and learning services -- Vocabulary

This document is the source document for the terms and definitions of ISO/TC 232, Education and learning services. This document is intended to provide a reference for standards users and developers, as well as to facilitate communication and common understanding of the terms within the field of education and learning services and the scope of ISO/TC 232.

Enseignement et formation -- Vocabulaire

Le présent document constitue le document source pour tous les termes et définitions de l’ISO/TC 232, Éducation et services de formation. Le présent document est destiné à servir de référence aux utilisateurs et aux rédacteurs de normes ainsi qu’à faciliter la communication et la compréhension commune des termes employés en matière d’enseignement et de formation, d’une part, et du domaine des travaux de l’ISO/TC 232, d’autre part.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
06-Apr-2021
Completion Date
05-Apr-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 29995
First edition
2021-05
Education and learning services —
Vocabulary
Services d'éducation et d'apprentissage — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 29995:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 29995:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms related to organizations and people .................................................................................................................... 1

3.3 Terms related to education and learning activities ................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Terms related to assessment ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Terms related to evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.6 Terms related to resources and documents ................................................................................................................... 7

3.7 Terms related to management systems ............................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Alphabetical index of terms .....................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 232, Education and learning services.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
Introduction

This document contains 100 terminological entries. The entries are arranged in different categories,

logically based on different items and contents involved in education and learning services (e.g.

organization, person, activity, assessment, evaluation, resource and document, management system).

An alphabetical index is provided at the end of this document.

The harmonization of terms and definitions in the field of education and learning services at the ISO

level is important, although some terms and definitions are used inconsistently. Listing all the terms

and definitions does not endorse this inconsistency but provides a reference for related standards

development and revision, and encourages this harmonization work.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 29995:2021(E)
Education and learning services — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document is the source document for the terms and definitions of ISO/TC 232, Education and

learning services.

This document is intended to provide a reference for standards users and developers, as well as to

facilitate communication and common understanding of the terms within the field of education and

learning services and the scope of ISO/TC 232.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
learning service
sequence of activities designed to enable ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)
3.1.2
educational service

process (3.7.8) that supports acquisition and development of ‘A’ learners' (3.2.7) ‘A’ competence (3.4.13)

through teaching (3.3.10), learning or research
3.2 Terms related to organizations and people
3.2.1
organization

person (3.2.6) or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and

relationships to achieve its objectives (3.7.6)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.
3.2.2
educational organization

organization (3.2.1) whose core business is the provision of educational products (3.6.2) and educational

services (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: This can include an educational organization within a larger organization whose core business is

not education, such as a professional training department.
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
3.2.3
learning service provider
LSP

organization or individual providing learning services (3.1.1) outside formal education, including any

associates involved in the provision of the learning service
3.2.4
language-learning service provider
LLSP

organization or individual providing language-learning services (3.3.9) outside formal education,

including any personnel involved in the provision of the language-learning service

3.2.5
distance learning service provider
DLSP

organization or individual providing distance learning services (3.3.5), including any associates involved

in the provision of the distance learning services
3.2.6
person
individual

human being, i.e. a natural person, who acts as a distinct indivisible entity or is considered as such

3.2.7
‘A’ learner

beneficiary (3.2.22) acquiring and developing ‘A’ competence (3.4.13) using an educational service (3.1.2)

3.2.8
‘B’ learner
person engaged in language ‘A’ learning (3.3.1)
3.2.9
‘C’ learner
person engaged in ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)
3.2.10
‘D’ learner
person engaged in distance learning
3.2.11
continuous professional development

ongoing intentional enhancement of professional knowledge or of professional ‘B’ competence (3.4.14)

3.2.12
staff
persons (3.2.6) who work for and within an organization (3.2.1)
3.2.13
‘A’ facilitator

person who works with ‘C’ learners (3.2.9) to assist them with ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: A facilitator is also often referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a coach, a tutor or a mentor.

3.2.14
‘B’ facilitator
person who works with learners to assist them with learning

Note 1 to entry: A facilitator is also often referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a coach, a tutor or a mentor.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
3.2.15
teacher

person whose job is to provide instruction and facilitate ‘A’ learning (3.3.1), whether in an educational

institution or professional training environment
3.2.16
educator
person (3.2.6) who performs teaching (3.3.10) activities

Note 1 to entry: In different contexts, an educator is sometimes referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a

coach, a facilitator, a tutor, a consultant, an instructor, a lecturer or a mentor.

3.2.17
‘A’ interested party
stakeholder

person (3.2.6) or organization (3.2.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a

decision or activity

Note 1 to entry: ISO 21001:2018, Annex C, gives a classification of interested parties in educational organizations

(3.2.2).
3.2.18
‘B’ interested party

individual, group or organization with a direct or indirect interest in the learning service (3.1.1),

including its management and outcomes, or the processes involved, or both
3.2.19
‘A’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires language-learning services

(3.3.9) on behalf of ‘B’ learners (3.2.8), that provides financial or other support for them, or has a vested

interest in the outcome of the language learning
Note 1 to entry: Sponsors include corporations, government agencies and persons.
3.2.20
‘B’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires learning services (3.1.1) on behalf of ‘C’ learners (3.2.9), that

provides financial or other support for them, or that has a vested interest in the outcome of the ‘B’

learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Sponsors include corporations, government agencies and individuals.

3.2.21
‘C’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires distance learning services (3.3.5) on behalf of learners, provides

financial or other support for them or has a vested interest in the outcome of the learning

EXAMPLE Corporations, government agencies, persons.
3.2.22
beneficiary

person (3.2.6) or group of people benefiting from the products and services of an educational

organization (3.2.2) and whom the educational organization is obliged to serve by virtue of its mission

(3.7.18)
Note 1 to entry: ISO 21001:2018, Annex D, includes a list of beneficiaries.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
3.2.23
instructional designer

person who crafts content for a learning experience, using systematic methodologies and instructional

theory

Note 1 to entry: Instructional designers can work alone or lead teams that include writers, editors, graphic

designers, artists, subject matter experts, assessment specialists and other professionals tasked with the work

of content and curriculum development. In a small enterprise or institution, a single individual can play the roles

of both instructional designer and facilitator.

Note 2 to entry: It includes a scope and sequence, curriculum and syllabus for the distance learning experience.

3.2.24
technical literacy
ability to use, manage, understand and assess technology
3.3 Terms related to education and learning activities
3.3.1
‘A’ learning

acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or

understanding in the language domain
3.3.2
‘B’ learning
acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or understanding
3.3.3
‘C’ learning
acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or understanding
3.3.4
lifelong learning

provision or use of learning opportunities throughout people's lives in order to foster their continuous

development
3.3.5
distance learning service

sequence of activities, designed to enable learning, delivered while learners and facilitators are

separated by time, space or both
EXAMPLE Correspondence courses, online learning and mobile learning.
3.3.6
e-learning
‘A’ learning (3.3.1) facilitated by information and communications technology
3.3.7
‘A’ blended learning
combination of face-to-face ‘A’ learning (3.3.1) with e-learning (3.3.6)
3.3.8
‘B’ blended learning
combination of different modes of ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Modes of learning include face-to-face learning and IT-supported learning.

3.3.9
language-learning service
process or sequence of activities designed to enable language learning
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
3.3.10
teaching
working with ‘A’ learners (3.2.7) to assist and support them with learning

Note 1 to entry: Working with learners implies designing, leading and following up learning activities.

Note 2 to entry: Teaching can combine different roles: content delivery, facilitation, mentorship, community

building and, to a certain extent, counselling and providing academic guidance.
3.4 Terms related to assessment
3.4.1
‘A’ assessment

gathering of language data to determine the language ability of an

individual language ‘B’ learner (3.2.8) or group of learners
3.4.2
‘B’ assessment

test, examination, observation or other process designed to measure an examinee’s knowledge,

competence or performance in a defined area against specific reference points or standards (educational

or professional)
3.4.3
‘C’ assessment

gathering of data to determine the ‘B’ learning (3.3.2) outcomes of an individual ‘C’ learner (3.2.9) or

group of learners
3.4.4
assessor

person or organization responsible for interpreting an examinee’s performance on the assessment

tasks and providing appropriate reporting and feedback to examinees and the client

Note 1 to entry: Assessors are competent to make decisions about the use and interpretation of assessment

procedures. In relation to psychological testing, in some countries they are referred to as “test users” to

distinguish them from “test proctors”, “test administrators” or “monitors”. Assessors can be employees of the

service provider or the client, or third parties contracted for the purposes of the assessment.

3.4.5
proctor
invigilator
authorised person who administers or supervises an assessment
3.4.6
scorer
rater

qualified and trained person who assigns a score to an examinee's performance based on defined

criteria
3.4.7
assessment developer

organization or individual responsible for the planning, development, delivery and quality assurance of

assessments
3.4.8
assessment sponsor

organization or individual accountable for the acquisition, development or selection of assessments

3.4.9
diagnostic assessment

assessment which identifies what the learner already knows, the nature of any difficulties that the

learner has, or both
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 29995:2021(E)
3.4.10
hand scoring

human scoring of an examinee's response to an item using an answer key in which all acceptable

responses are predetermined
3.4.11
live scoring

human scoring of an assessment during or immediately following the administration of an assessment

3.4.12
machine scoring
automatic scoring of an item using technology

Note 1 to entry: Machine scoring is an emerging technology where, for example, a computer program

automatically scores a computer-based assessment.
3.4.13
‘A’ competence
ability to apply knowledge (3.4.19) and ‘A’
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 29995
Première édition
2021-05
Enseignement et formation —
Vocabulaire
Education and learning services — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 29995:2021(F)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 29995:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes généraux ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Termes relatifs aux organismes et aux personnes ................................................................................................... 1

3.3 Termes relatifs aux activités d’enseignement et d’apprentissage .............................................................. 4

3.4 Termes relatifs à l’évaluation ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Termes relatifs à l’évaluation ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.6 Termes relatifs aux ressources et aux documents .................................................................................................... 8

3.7 Termes relatifs aux systèmes de management .........................................................................................................10

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Index alphabétique des termes ............................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 232, Éducation et services de

formation.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
Introduction

Le présent document contient 100 articles terminologiques. Ces articles sont classés dans différentes

catégories fondées logiquement sur les différents éléments et contenus relatifs à l’enseignement et à la

formation (par exemple, organismes, personnes, activités, évaluations, ressources et documentation,

système de management). Un index alphabétique est fourni à la fin du présent document.

Il est important d’harmoniser les termes et définitions employés dans le domaine de l’enseignement et

de la formation au niveau de l’ISO, bien que certains termes et définitions ne soient utilisés de manière

cohérente. Le fait de dresser la liste de tous ces termes et définitions ne constitue pas une approbation

de ce manque de cohérence mais fournit une référence pour l’élaboration et la révision des normes

concernées et facilite ce travail d’harmonisation.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 29995:2021(F)
Enseignement et formation — Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document constitue le document source pour tous les termes et définitions de l’ISO/TC 232,

Éducation et services de formation.

Le présent document est destiné à servir de référence aux utilisateurs et aux rédacteurs de normes

ainsi qu’à faciliter la communication et la compréhension commune des termes employés en matière

d’enseignement et de formation, d’une part, et du domaine des travaux de l’ISO/TC 232, d’autre part.

2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Termes généraux
3.1.1
formation

succession d’activités conçue pour permettre l’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2)

3.1.2
service d’enseignement ou de formation

processus (3.7.8) venant à l’appui de l’acquisition et du développement des compétences (de

niveau A) (3.4.13) des apprenants (de niveau A) (3.2.7) par le biais de l’enseignement/la formation (3.3.10),

de l’apprentissage ou de la recherche
3.2 Termes relatifs aux organismes et aux personnes
3.2.1
organisme

personne (3.2.6) ou groupe de personnes ayant un rôle avec ses responsabilités, ses autorités et relations

lui permettant d’atteindre ses objectifs (3.7.6)

Note 1 à l'article: Le concept d’organisme englobe, sans s’y limiter, les travailleurs indépendants, les entreprises,

les administrations, les partenariats, les associations ou les institutions, ou bien une partie ou une combinaison

des entités précédentes, publiques ou privées.
3.2.2
organisme d’enseignement/formation

organisme (3.2.1) dont l’activité principale est la fourniture de produits d’enseignement (3.6.2) et la

prestation de services d’enseignement ou de formation (3.1.2) formels ou non formels

Note 1 à l'article: Ceci peut inclure un organisme d’enseignement/formation au sein d’un organisme de plus

grande taille dont l’activité principale n’est pas l’enseignement ou la formation, tel qu’un service interne de

formation professionnelle.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
3.2.3
prestataire de formation
PSF

organisme ou personne fournissant des formations (3.1.1) en dehors du cadre de l’enseignement formel,

incluant tous les collaborateurs impliqués dans la fourniture de la prestation de formation

3.2.4
prestataire de formation en langues
PSFL

organisme ou personne fournissant des prestations de formation en langues (3.3.9) en dehors du cadre

de l’enseignement formel, incluant tous les membres du personnel impliqués dans la fourniture de la

prestation de formation en langues
3.2.5
prestataire de formation à distance
PSFD

organisme ou personne fournissant des prestations de formation à distance (3.3.5), incluant tous les

collaborateurs impliqués dans la fourniture de prestations de formation à distance

3.2.6
personne
individu

être humain, c’est-à-dire personne physique, qui agit comme une entité distincte indivisible ou qui est

considérée comme telle
3.2.7
apprenant (de niveau A)

bénéficiaire (3.2.22) acquérant et développant des compétences (de niveau A) (3.4.13) par la voie de

services d’enseignement ou de formation (3.1.2) formels ou non formels
3.2.8
apprenant (de niveau B)

personne engagée dans l’apprentissage (de niveau A) (3.3.1)

d’une langue
3.2.9
apprenant (de niveau C)
personne engagée dans une activité d’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2)
3.2.10
apprenant (de niveau D)
personne engagée dans une activité d’apprentissage à distance
3.2.11
formation professionnelle continue

renforcement intentionnel et continu des connaissances ou des compétences (de niveau B) (3.4.14)

professionnelles
3.2.12
personnel
personnes (3.2.6) travaillant pour et au sein d’un organisme (3.2.1)
3.2.13
facilitateur (A)

personne qui facilite l’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2) des apprenants (de niveau C) (3.2.9)

Note 1 à l'article: Le facilitateur est souvent appelé «enseignant» (3.2.15), «formateur», «coach», «tuteur» ou

«mentor».
2 © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
3.2.14
facilitateur (B)

personne qui travaille avec les apprenants pour les aider dans leur apprentissage

Note 1 à l'article: Le facilitateur est souvent appelé «enseignant» (3.2.15), «formateur», «coach», «tuteur» ou

«mentor».
3.2.15
enseignant

personne dont l’activité professionnelle consiste à former et à faciliter les apprentissages (de niveau A)

(3.3.1), que ce soit dans un établissement d’enseignement/formation ou dans l’environnement de la

formation professionnelle
3.2.16
enseignant
personne (3.2.6) qui réalise des activités d’enseignement/formation (3.3.10)

Note 1 à l'article: Selon le contexte, un enseignant (3.2.16 et 3.2.15) est parfois appelé «formateur», «animateur»,

«facilitateur», «tuteur», «consultant», «instructeur», «chargé de cours» ou «mentor».

3.2.17
partie intéressée (A)
partie prenante

personne (3.2.6) ou organisme (3.2.1) qui peut soit influer sur une décision ou une activité, soit être

influencé ou s’estimer influencé par une décision ou une activité

Note 1 à l'article: L’Annexe C de l’ISO 21001:2018 fournit une classification des parties intéressées par les

organismes d’enseignement/formation (3.2.2).
3.2.18
partie intéressée (B)

individu, groupe ou organisme ayant un intérêt direct ou indirect dans la formation (3.1.1), y compris

dans sa gestion et ses résultats, et/ou dans les processus impliqués
3.2.19
commanditaire (A)

organisme ou personne qui acquiert des prestations de formation

en langues (3.3.9) pour le compte d’apprenants (de niveau B) (3.2.8), qui les finance ou les aide ou qui a

un intérêt direct dans le résultat de l’apprentissage des langues

Note 1 à l'article: Les commanditaires peuvent être, entre autres, des entreprises, des organismes publics ou des

personnes physiques.
3.2.20
commanditaire (B)

organisme ou personne qui fait l’acquisition de formations (3.1.1) pour le compte d’apprenants (de

niveau C) (3.2.9), qui leur assure un soutien financier ou autre, ou qui a un intérêt direct dans le résultat

de l’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2)

Note 1 à l'article: Les commanditaires peuvent être, entre autres, des entreprises, des organismes publics ou des

personnes physiques.
3.2.21
commanditaire (C)

organisme ou personne qui fait l’acquisition de prestations de formation à distance (3.3.5) pour le compte

d’apprenants, qui leur assure un soutien financier ou autre, ou qui a un intérêt direct dans le résultat de

l’apprentissage
EXEMPLE Entreprises, organismes publics, personnes physiques.
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
3.2.22
bénéficiaire

personne (3.2.6) ou groupe de personnes bénéficiant des produits et prestations d’un organisme

d’enseignement/formation (3.2.2), et que l’organisme d’enseignement/formation est tenu de servir en

vertu de sa mission (3.7.18)

Note 1 à l'article: L’Annexe D de l’ISO 21001:2018 comporte une liste de bénéficiaires.

3.2.23
concepteur pédagogique

personne qui élabore des contenus destinés à l’apprentissage, d’une façon systématique, en appliquant

une théorie d’apprentissage

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepteurs pédagogiques peuvent travailler seuls ou diriger des équipes composées de

rédacteurs, d’éditeurs, de graphistes, d’artistes, d’experts en la matière, de spécialistes en évaluation et d’autres

professionnels chargés de travailler sur l’élaboration de contenus et de curriculum. Dans une petite entreprise

ou une petite structure, les fonctions de concepteur pédagogique et de facilitateur peuvent être assurées par une

seule et même personne.

Note 2 à l'article: Pour la formation à distance, cela comprend les activités générales organisées, un curriculum et

un programme de cours.
3.2.24
alphabétisation technologique
capacité à utiliser, gérer, comprendre et évaluer les technologies
3.3 Termes relatifs aux activités d’enseignement et d’apprentissage
3.3.1
apprentissage (de niveau A)

acquisition de connaissances, de comportements, d’aptitudes,

de valeurs, de préférences ou d’une compréhension dans une ou plusieurs langues
3.3.2
apprentissage (de niveau B)

acquisition de connaissances, de comportements, d’aptitudes, de valeurs, de préférences ou de

compréhension
3.3.3
apprentissage (de niveau C)

acquisition de connaissances, de comportements, d’aptitudes, de valeurs, de préférences ou de

compréhension
3.3.4
apprentissage tout au long de la vie

offre ou exploitation d’opportunités d’apprentissage tout au long de la vie des personnes afin de

favoriser leur développement continu
3.3.5
prestation de formation à distance

succession d’activités conçue pour permettre l’apprentissage et diffusée tandis que les apprenants et

les facilitateurs sont séparés par le temps et/ou par la distance

EXEMPLE Cours par correspondance, apprentissage en ligne et apprentissage mobile.

3.3.6
formation à distance

apprentissage (de niveau A) (3.3.1) facilité par les technologies de l’information et de la communication

4 © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
3.3.7
formation mixte (ou hybride) (A)

articulation de temps d’apprentissage (de niveau A) (3.3.1) en présence et à distance (3.3.6)

3.3.8
apprentissage hybride (B)
combinaison de différents modes d’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2)

Note 1 à l'article: Les modes d’apprentissage comprennent l’apprentissage en face à face et l’apprentissage basé

sur les technologies de l’information.
3.3.9
prestation de formation en langues
processus ou succession d’activités conçus pour l’apprentissage des langues
3.3.10
enseignement/formation

travail avec des apprenants (de niveau A) (3.2.7) pour les assister et les soutenir dans leur apprentissage

Note 1 à l'article: Le travail avec les apprenants implique la conception, la conduite et le suivi des activités

d’apprentissage.

Note 2 à l'article: L’enseignement et la formation peuvent combiner différents rôles: diffusion de contenus,

facilitation, mentorat, édification de la communauté et, dans une certaine mesure, conseil et orientation.

3.4 Termes relatifs à l’évaluation
3.4.1
évaluation (du niveau ou des apprentissages) (A)

collecte d’informations relatives à une langue pour mesurer la

capacité d’un apprenant (de niveau B) (3.2.8) ou d’un groupe d’apprenants à communiquer dans cette

langue
3.4.2
évaluation (B)

épreuve, examen, observation ou autre procédé similaire conçu pour évaluer les connaissances, les

compétences ou les performances d’un candidat dans un domaine spécifique par rapport à des éléments

de référence ou des normes donnés (didactiques ou professionnels)
3.4.3
évaluation du résultat (C)

collecte des données permettant de déterminer les résultats d’apprentissage (de niveau B) (3.3.2) d’un

apprenant (de niveau C) (3.2.9) individuel ou d’un groupe d’apprenants
3.4.4
rapporteur

personne ou organisme chargé d’interpréter les performances d’un candidat dans l’exécution des tâches

à évaluer, de produire un rapport approprié et de communiquer les résultats aux candidats et au client

Note 1 à l'article: Les rapporteurs sont compétents pour prendre des décisions concernant l’utilisation et

l’interprétation des procédures d’évaluation. Dans certains pays, quand il s’agit d’épreuves psychologiques, les

rapporteurs sont appelés «psychologues évaluateurs» pour les distinguer des «surveillants d’épreuves», des

«responsables d’épreuves» ou des «superviseurs». Les rapporteurs peuvent être des salariés du prestataire ou

du client, ou des tiers engagés aux fins de l’évaluation.
3.4.5
surveillant
appariteur
personne autorisée qui est responsable d’une évaluation ou la supervise
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ISO 29995:2021(F)
3.4.6
évaluateur

personne qualifiée et formée qui attribue une note à la performance d’un candidat en fonction de

critères définis
3.4.7
concepteur de l’évaluation

entreprise ou personne responsable de la planification, de l’élaboration, de la réalisation et de

l’assurance qualité d’évaluations
3.4.8
commanditaire de l’évaluation

entreprise ou personne responsable de l’achat, de l’élaboration ou de la sélection d’évaluations

3.4.9
évaluation diagnostique

évaluation déterminant ce que l’apprenant sait déjà et/ou la nature des difficultés qu’il est susceptible

de rencontrer
3.4.10
évaluation manuelle

mesure humaine de la réponse d’un candidat à un item en utilisant une grille de correction dans laquelle

toutes les réponses acceptables sont prédéterminées
3.4.11
évaluation directe

mesure humaine d’une évaluation pendant ou immédiatement après la passation d’une évaluation

3.4.12
évaluation automatique
appréciation automatique d’un item par des moyens techniques

Note 1 à l'article: L’évaluation automatique est une technologie émergente. Il peut s’agir, par exemple, d’un

programme informatique qui note automatiquement une évaluation informatique.
3.4.13
compétence (de niveau A)

capacité à mettre en pratique des connaissances (3.4.19) et des aptitudes (de type A) (3.4.17) pour obtenir

les résultats escomptés

Note 1 à l'article: La capacité à mettre en pratique des connaissances et des aptitudes implique que l’apprenant (de

niveau A) (3.2.7) fait preuve d’un comportement et d’attitudes appropriés dans différents co

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 29995
ISO/TC 232
Education and learning services —
Secretariat: DIN
Vocabulary
Voting begins on:
2021­02­08
Services d'éducation et d'apprentissage — Vocabulaire
Voting terminates on:
2021­04­05
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms related to organizations and people .................................................................................................................. 1

3.3 Terms related to education and learning activities ................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Terms related to assessment ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Terms related to evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.6 Terms related to resources and documents ................................................................................................................... 7

3.7 Terms related to management systems ............................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Alphabetical index of terms .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 232, Education and learning services.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
Introduction

This document contains 100 terminological entries. The entries are arranged in different categories,

logically based on different items and contents involved in education and learning (e.g. organization,

person, activity, assessment, evaluation, resource and document, management system). An alphabetical

index is provided at the end of this document.

The harmonization of terms and definitions in the field of education and learning services at the ISO

level is important, although some terms and definitions are used inconsistently. Listing all the terms

and definitions does not endorse this inconsistency but provides a reference for related standards

development and revision, and encourages this harmonization work.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
Education and learning services — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document is the source document for the terms and definitions of ISO/TC 232, Education and

learning services.

This document is intended to provide a reference for standards users and developers, as well as to

facilitate communication and common understanding of the terms within the field of education and

learning and the scope of ISO/TC 232.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
learning service
sequence of activities designed to enable ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)
3.1.2
educational service

process (3.7.8) that supports acquisition and development of ‘A’ learners' (3.2.7) ‘A’ competence (3.4.13)

through teaching (3.3.10), learning or research
3.2 Terms related to organizations and people
3.2.1
organization

person (3.2.6) or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and

relationships to achieve its objectives (3.7.6)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.
3.2.2
educational organization

organization (3.2.1) whose core business is the provision of educational products (3.6.2) and educational

services (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: This can include an educational organization within a larger organization whose core business is

not education, such as a professional training department.
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
3.2.3
learning service provider
LSP

organization or individual providing learning services (3.1.1) outside formal education, including any

associates involved in the provision of the learning service
3.2.4
language-learning service provider
LLSP

organization or individual providing language-learning services (3.3.9) outside formal education,

including any personnel involved in the provision of the language-learning service

3.2.5
distance learning service provider
DLSP

organization or individual providing distance learning services (3.3.5), including any associates involved

in the provision of the distance learning services
3.2.6
person
individual

human being, i.e. a natural person, who acts as a distinct indivisible entity or is considered as such

3.2.7
‘A’ learner

beneficiary (3.2.22) acquiring and developing ‘A’ competence (3.4.13) using an educational service (3.1.2)

3.2.8
‘B’ learner
person engaged in language ‘A’ learning (3.3.1)
3.2.9
‘C’ learner
person engaged in ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)
3.2.10
‘D’ learner
person engaged in distance learning
3.2.11
continuous professional development

ongoing intentional enhancement of professional knowledge or of professional ‘B’ competence (3.4.14)

3.2.12
staff
persons (3.2.6) who work for and within an organization (3.2.1)
3.2.13
‘A’ facilitator

person who works with ‘C’ learners (3.2.9) to assist them with ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: A facilitator is also often referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a coach, a tutor or a mentor.

3.2.14
‘B’ facilitator
person who works with learners to assist them with learning

Note 1 to entry: A facilitator is also often referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a coach, a tutor or a mentor.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
3.2.15
teacher

person whose job is to provide instruction and facilitate ‘A’ learning (3.3.1), whether in an educational

institution or professional training environment
3.2.16
educator
person (3.2.6) who performs teaching (3.3.10) activities

Note 1 to entry: In different contexts, an educator is sometimes referred to as a teacher (3.2.15), a trainer, a

coach, a facilitator, a tutor, a consultant, an instructor, a lecturer or a mentor.

3.2.17
‘A’ interested party
stakeholder

person (3.2.6) or organization (3.2.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a

decision or activity

Note 1 to entry: ISO 21001:2018, Annex C, gives a classification of interested parties in educational organizations

(3.2.2).
3.2.18
‘B’ interested party

individual, group or organization with a direct or indirect interest in the learning service (3.1.1),

including its management and outcomes, or the processes involved, or both
3.2.19
‘A’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires language-learning services

(3.3.9) on behalf of ‘B’ learners (3.2.8), that provides financial or other support for them, or has a vested

interest in the outcome of the language learning
Note 1 to entry: Sponsors include corporations, government agencies and persons.
3.2.20
‘B’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires learning services (3.1.1) on behalf of ‘C’ learners (3.2.9), that

provides financial or other support for them, or that has a vested interest in the outcome of the ‘B’

learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Sponsors include corporations, government agencies and individuals.

3.2.21
‘C’ sponsor

organization or individual that acquires distance learning services (3.3.5) on behalf of learners, provides

financial or other support for them or has a vested interest in the outcome of the learning

EXAMPLE Corporations, government agencies, persons.
3.2.22
beneficiary

person (3.2.6) or group of people benefiting from the products and services of an educational

organization (3.2.2) and whom the educational organization is obliged to serve by virtue of its mission

(3.7.18)
Note 1 to entry: ISO 21001:2018, Annex D, includes a list of beneficiaries.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
3.2.23
instructional designer

person who crafts content for a learning experience, using systematic methodologies and

instructional theory

Note 1 to entry: Instructional designers can work alone or lead teams that include writers, editors, graphic

designers, artists, subject matter experts, assessment specialists and other professionals tasked with the work

of content and curriculum development. In a small enterprise or institution, a single individual can play the roles

of both instructional designer and facilitator.

Note 2 to entry: It includes a scope and sequence, curriculum and syllabus for the distance learning experience.

3.2.24
technical literacy
ability to use, manage, understand and assess technology
3.3 Terms related to education and learning activities
3.3.1
‘A’ learning

acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or

understanding in the language domain
3.3.2
‘B’ learning
acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or understanding
3.3.3
‘C’ learning
acquiring knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or understanding
3.3.4
lifelong learning

provision or use of learning opportunities throughout people's lives in order to foster their continuous

development
3.3.5
distance learning service

sequence of activities, designed to enable learning, delivered while learners and facilitators are

separated by time, space or both
EXAMPLE Correspondence courses, online learning and mobile learning.
3.3.6
e-learning
‘A’ learning (3.3.1) facilitated by information and communications technology
3.3.7
‘A’ blended learning
combination of face­to­face ‘A’ learning (3.3.1) with e-learning (3.3.6)
3.3.8
‘B’ blended learning
combination of different modes of ‘B’ learning (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: Modes of learning include face-to-face learning and IT-supported learning.

3.3.9
language-learning service
process or sequence of activities designed to enable language learning
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
3.3.10
teaching
working with ‘A’ learners (3.2.7) to assist and support them with learning

Note 1 to entry: Working with learners implies designing, leading and following up learning activities.

Note 2 to entry: Teaching can combine different roles: content delivery, facilitation, mentorship, community

building and, to a certain extent, counselling and providing academic guidance.
3.4 Terms related to assessment
3.4.1
‘A’ assessment

gathering of language data to determine the language ability of an

individual language ‘B’ learner (3.2.8) or group of learners
3.4.2
‘B’ assessment

test, examination, observation or other process designed to measure an examinee’s knowledge,

competence or performance in a defined area against specific reference points or standards (educational

or professional)
3.4.3
‘C’ assessment

gathering of data to determine the ‘B’ learning (3.3.2) outcomes of an individual ‘C’ learner (3.2.9) or

group of learners
3.4.4
assessor

person or organization responsible for interpreting an examinee’s performance on the assessment

tasks and providing appropriate reporting and feedback to examinees and the client

Note 1 to entry: Assessors are competent to make decisions about the use and interpretation of assessment

procedures. In relation to psychological testing, in some countries they are referred to as “test users” to

distinguish them from “test proctors”, “test administrators” or “monitors”. Assessors can be employees of the

service provider or the client, or third parties contracted for the purposes of the assessment.

3.4.5
proctor
invigilator
authorised person who administers or supervises an assessment
3.4.6
scorer
rater

qualified and trained person who assigns a score to an examinee's performance based on defined

criteria
3.4.7
assessment developer

organization or individual responsible for the planning, development, delivery and quality assurance of

assessments
3.4.8
assessment sponsor

organization or individual accountable for the acquisition, development or selection of assessments

3.4.9
diagnostic assessment

assessment which identifies what the learner already knows, the nature of any difficulties that the

learner has, or both
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 29995:2021(E)
3.4.10
hand scoring

human scoring of an examinee's response to an item using an answer key in which all acceptable

responses are predetermined
3.4.11
live scoring
human scoring of an assessment during or immediately following the administrat
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.