International museum statistics

ISO 18461:2016 specifies rules for the museum community on the collection and reporting of statistics. It provides definitions and counting procedures for all types of resources and services that museums offer to their users. It is recognized that not all measures specified in this International Standard can be collected by museums of different type and size. The aim is to ensure that, where a particular statistic is collected, the same definitions and methods are used. ISO 18461:2016 is not intended to exclude the use of methods not specified in it. There are many different types of museums, with different tasks and audiences, having a range of unique characteristics (structure, funding, governance, etc.), and affected by a number of situational factors. Since there is such a wide variation around the world, it is important to understand that not all methods described in this International Standard may be required by or useful to all museums.

Statistiques internationales des musées

Mednarodna statistika za muzeje

Ta mednarodni standard določa pravila za skupnost muzejev glede zbiranja in poročanja statistike. Zagotavlja opredelitve in postopke štetja za vse vrste virov in storitev, ki jih muzeji ponujajo uporabnikom.
Upoštevano je,
da muzeji različnih vrst in velikosti ne morejo zbirati podatkov o vseh merilih, opredeljenih v tem mednarodnem standardu, Cilj je zagotoviti, da se uporabljajo enake opredelitve in metode v primerih, ko se zbira statistika za določeno merilo.
Ta mednarodni standard naj ne bi izključeval uporabe metod, ki v njem niso določene. Obstajajo
različne vrste muzejev z različnimi opravili in občinstvom, številnimi edinstvenimi
lastnostmi (struktura, financiranje, upravljanje itd.) ter številnimi situacijskimi dejavniki, ki vplivajo nanje.
Ker se muzeji po svetu močno razlikujejo, je treba upoštevati, da se vse metode, opisane v tem mednarodnem standardu, morda ne zahtevajo za vse muzeje oziroma zanje niso uporabne.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Mar-2016
Current Stage
9060 - Close of review
Start Date
05-Jun-2021

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 18461:2016 - International museum statistics
English language
37 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ISO 18461:2017
English language
43 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18461
First edition
2016-03-01
International museum statistics
Statistiques internationales des musées
Reference number
ISO 18461:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Types of museums ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

2.3 Governing authority of museums ........................................................................................................................................... 4

2.4 Museum services and use .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

2.5 Collections and processes relating to collections ..................................................................................................... 8

2.6 Access and facilities .........................................................................................................................................................................13

2.7 Income and expenditure ..............................................................................................................................................................13

2.8 Management ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

2.9 Museum staff .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

3 Structure and tasks of museums .......................................................................................................................................................16

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

3.2 New technologies and digitizing ...........................................................................................................................................17

3.3 Renewed interest in the visitor ..............................................................................................................................................17

3.4 Intangible cultural heritage ......................................................................................................................................................17

3.5 Social impact of museums ..........................................................................................................................................................18

4 Uses and benefits of museum statistics .....................................................................................................................................18

4.1 Background .............................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.2 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.3 Quality ....................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.2 Selection of statistics for the museum .............................................................................................................................19

4.3 Use of statistics ....................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.3.2 External communication ........................................................................................................................................19

4.4 Presenting statistics to stakeholders ................................................................................................................................19

5 Reporting statistical data .........................................................................................................................................................................20

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.2 Time period to which data refer ...........................................................................................................................................20

5.3 Data estimated by sample ..........................................................................................................................................................20

6 Collecting statistical data .........................................................................................................................................................................21

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Museums ...................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2.1 Type of collection .........................................................................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Geographical coverage of the collections.................................................................................................21

6.2.3 Type of presentation (if applicable) .............................................................................................................22

6.2.4 Governing authority ...................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.5 Ownership of the permanent collection ...................................................................................................22

6.2.6 Counting sites of museums ..................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Museum services and their use .............................................................................................................................................23

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.2 Opening times .................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.3 Entrance fees to permanent exhibitions ..................................................................................................23

6.3.4 Visits ........................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.3.5 Temporary physical exhibitions ......................................................................................................................24

6.3.6 Virtual exhibitions .......................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.7 Events .....................................................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.8 Virtual events ...................................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.9 Guided tours .....................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)

6.3.10 Programmes ......................................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.11 Virtual programmes ...................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.12 Publications .......................................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.13 Museum website ...........................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.14 Online services ...............................................................................................................................................................27

6.3.15 Collection information available online (at the end of the reporting period) .........27

6.3.16 Services for mobile devices offered by the museum......................................................................27

6.3.17 Social network services ..........................................................................................................................................27

6.3.18 Loans .......................................................................................................................................................................................27

6.3.19 Special services ..............................................................................................................................................................27

6.4 Collections ................................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.1 Total collection at the end of the reporting period .........................................................................28

6.4.2 Accessions...........................................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.3 Deaccessions/withdrawals ..................................................................................................................................28

6.4.4 Mode of acquisition ....................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.5 Percentage of objects in the collection on display ...........................................................................28

6.4.6 Documentary coverage of the collection ..................................................................................................28

6.5 Income and expenditure ..............................................................................................................................................................29

6.5.1 Operating (ordinary) expenditure .................................................................................................................29

6.5.2 Capital expenditure ....................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.3 Income and funding ...................................................................................................................................................30

6.6 Space .............................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.6.1 Gross floor area ..............................................................................................................................................................30

6.6.2 Net usable area for museum functions ......................................................................................................30

6.6.3 Net usable area by function .................................................................................................................................31

6.6.4 Barrier-free access ......................................................................................................................................................31

6.7 Management ...........................................................................................................................................................................................31

6.7.1 Preservation/conservation ..................................................................................................................................31

6.7.2 Digitization.........................................................................................................................................................................31

6.8 Museum staff (at the end of the reporting period) ...............................................................................................32

6.8.1 Paid staff ...............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.8.2 Volunteers ...........................................................................................................................................................................32

6.8.3 Internships and trainees ........................................................................................................................................32

6.8.4 Staff training .....................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Subdivision of collection counts ...............................................................................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Introduction

This International Standard provides guidance to the museum community on the collection and

reporting of statistics
— for the purpose of strategic planning and internal management of museums,

— for reporting to stakeholders such as funding institutions, politicians, or the public,

— to promote the museums’ role and value for learning and research, education and culture, social and

economic life, and

— for comparing and aggregating results at a regional, national or international level.

Clause 2 and Clause 6 form the core of this International Standard. Clause 2 provides definitions for

most of the elements which constitute a museum or museum service; these are for statistical purposes

only. Clause 6 recommends how each of these elements should be counted. Users will need to consult

both clauses for the complete information.

In order to show the setting in which the defined museum services appear, Clause 3 describes the

current structure and tasks of museums. Annex A gives a structure for differentiated collection counts.

Describing and publicizing museum activities consistently can only be realized if data collection in

museums follows the lines of this International Standard. As far as possible, museums should collect all

data named in this International Standard that concern their activities.

This International Standard will be maintained by a Working Group that will monitor developments

and incorporate additional statistical measures as needed.

This International Standard has been developed in close cooperation with International Council

on Museums (ICOM) and takes advantage of, particularly, the work of European Group on Museum

Statistics (EGMUS) and of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (US).
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18461:2016(E)
International museum statistics
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies rules for the museum community on the collection and reporting

of statistics. It provides definitions and counting procedures for all types of resources and services that

museums offer to their users.

It is recognized that not all measures specified in this International Standard can be collected by

museums of different type and size. The aim is to ensure that, where a particular statistic is collected,

the same definitions and methods are used.

This International Standard is not intended to exclude the use of methods not specified in it. There

are many different types of museums, with different tasks and audiences, having a range of unique

characteristics (structure, funding, governance, etc.), and affected by a number of situational factors.

Since there is such a wide variation around the world, it is important to understand that not all methods

described in this International Standard may be required by or useful to all museums.

2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 General
2.1.1
archival records

record (2.8.11) of the same provenance accumulated by an organization or person in the course of the

conduct of affairs, and preserved because of their enduring value
2.1.2
archives

organization or part of an organization responsible for selection, acquisition (2.5.2), preservation (2.8.9)

and availability of one or more sets of archival documents
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:—, 4.2.3.01 — modified]
2.1.3
cultural heritage

legacy of physical objects and intangible attributes of a group or a society that are inherited from past

generations, maintained and protected in the present and preserved for future generations

2.1.4
library

organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information

resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational,

cultural or recreational needs of its users

Note 1 to entry: The supply of the required information resources can be accomplished by building and

maintaining a collection (2.5.9) and/or by organizing access to information resources.

Note 2 to entry: These are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and

services incidental to its main purpose.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, 2.1.6]
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.1.5
museum

non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public,

which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage

of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment

Note 1 to entry: Natural, archaeological and ethnographic monuments and sites and historical monuments and

sites of a museum nature are included, if they maintain a collection (2.5.9) similar to museums.

Note 2 to entry: Zoos (2.2.17), aquaria (2.2.1), arboreta (2.2.2) and botanic gardens (2.2.5) are included, but

should be reported separately.

Note 3 to entry: Collections in institutions of higher education that serve only the purposes of teaching and study

are excluded.

Note 4 to entry: Conservation institutes and exhibition galleries in libraries and archives centres are included if

they conform to the definition of museum.

Note 5 to entry: To conform to the definition it is not necessary that an institution be called a museum, but that it

has the role and function of a museum.
[SOURCE: ICOM, Museum definition, 2007]
2.1.6
museum site
location of a museum (2.1.5)
Note 1 to entry: Only sites operated by the museum itself are included.
2.2 Types of museums
2.2.1
aquarium

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of live aquatic animals and plants for display to the

public, study, and conservation
2.2.2
arboretum
botanic garden (2.2.5) devoted to trees
2.2.3
archaeology museum
museum (2.1.5) owing all or a part of its collections (2.5.9) to excavations
[SOURCE: UNESCO classification]
2.2.4
art museum
museum (2.1.5) concerned with works of visual art

Note 1 to entry: Includes museums of sculpture, picture galleries, museums of photography and cinema, and

museums of architecture.
Note 2 to entry: Commercial art galleries are excluded.
2.2.5
botanic garden

establishment where plants are grown for scientific study and display to the public

Note 1 to entry: Arboreta (2.2.2), herbaria (2.2.9), etc. are included.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.2.6
ecomuseum

museum (2.1.5) which is managed by local communities and aims to showcase and protect important

elements of an area’s cultural and natural heritage
2.2.7
ethnography and anthropology museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with subjects relating to culture, social structure, beliefs, customs,

traditional arts, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.8
general museum

museum (2.1.5) which has mixed collections (2.5.9) and cannot be identified by a predominant field

Note 1 to entry: “Universal museums” are considered “general museums”.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.9
herbarium

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of dried plants for display to the public, study and

conservation
2.2.10
history museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with the history of a defined geographic area or a cultural group of people

over a limited period or over the centuries

Note 1 to entry: Includes museums with collections (2.5.9) of historical objects, commemorative museums,

military museums, museums on historical persons, etc.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.11
living history museum
museum (2.1.5) which recreates historical settings to simulate past time periods
2.2.12
natural history museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with subjects relating to one or several disciplines such as biology, geology,

botany, zoology, palaeontology and ecology
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.13
open-air museum

museum (2.1.5) that exhibits buildings and objects out-of-doors, often in archaeological sites, past

industrial or mining heritage sites and settings of recreated landscapes of the past, and which includes

the site around the buildings
2.2.14
science and technology museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with exact sciences or technologies such as astronomy, mathematics, physics,

chemistry, medical science, computing, engineering, and applied sciences
Note 1 to entry: Planetaria and science centres are included.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.2.15
specialized museum
museum (2.1.5) concerned with all aspects of a single subject
Note 1 to entry: Examples for single subjects are “cats” or “Jonathan Swift”.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.16
virtual museum

online-only museum (2.1.5) without physical building or physical collection (2.5.9)

Note 1 to entry: Physical museums with online presence are excluded.

Note 2 to entry: Virtual museums can also be denoted as online museum, hypermuseum, digital museum,

cybermuseum or web museum.
2.2.17
zoo

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of live animals, typically in a park or in gardens, for

display to the public, study, and conservation
2.3 Governing authority of museums
2.3.1
governing authority

body with legal and fiduciary responsibility for the museum (2.1.5) and for approving museum policy

Note 1 to entry: The governing authority can be represented by a Board of Trustees.

2.3.2
locally/regionally governed museum

museum (2.1.5) governed by local or regional authorities (province, county, city, town, etc.).

2.3.3
other public-governed museums
museum (2.1.5) governed by other public authorities

Note 1 to entry: Foundations or associations registered under private law but governed by the state are included.

Note 2 to entry: Museums governed by state universities are included.
2.3.4
private-governed museum

museum (2.1.5) governed by private entities (such as non-profit organisations registered under private

law), families or individuals

Note 1 to entry: Foundations or associations registered under private law but governed by the state are excluded.

2.3.5
public/private partnership museum
museum (2.1.5
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18461:2017
01-februar-2017
Mednarodna statistika za muzeje
International museum statistics
Statistiques internationales des musées
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18461:2016
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST ISO 18461:2017 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18461
First edition
2016-03-01
International museum statistics
Statistiques internationales des musées
Reference number
ISO 18461:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Types of museums ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

2.3 Governing authority of museums ........................................................................................................................................... 4

2.4 Museum services and use .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

2.5 Collections and processes relating to collections ..................................................................................................... 8

2.6 Access and facilities .........................................................................................................................................................................13

2.7 Income and expenditure ..............................................................................................................................................................13

2.8 Management ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

2.9 Museum staff .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

3 Structure and tasks of museums .......................................................................................................................................................16

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

3.2 New technologies and digitizing ...........................................................................................................................................17

3.3 Renewed interest in the visitor ..............................................................................................................................................17

3.4 Intangible cultural heritage ......................................................................................................................................................17

3.5 Social impact of museums ..........................................................................................................................................................18

4 Uses and benefits of museum statistics .....................................................................................................................................18

4.1 Background .............................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.2 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1.3 Quality ....................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.2 Selection of statistics for the museum .............................................................................................................................19

4.3 Use of statistics ....................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.3.2 External communication ........................................................................................................................................19

4.4 Presenting statistics to stakeholders ................................................................................................................................19

5 Reporting statistical data .........................................................................................................................................................................20

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.2 Time period to which data refer ...........................................................................................................................................20

5.3 Data estimated by sample ..........................................................................................................................................................20

6 Collecting statistical data .........................................................................................................................................................................21

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Museums ...................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2.1 Type of collection .........................................................................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Geographical coverage of the collections.................................................................................................21

6.2.3 Type of presentation (if applicable) .............................................................................................................22

6.2.4 Governing authority ...................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.5 Ownership of the permanent collection ...................................................................................................22

6.2.6 Counting sites of museums ..................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Museum services and their use .............................................................................................................................................23

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.2 Opening times .................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.3 Entrance fees to permanent exhibitions ..................................................................................................23

6.3.4 Visits ........................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.3.5 Temporary physical exhibitions ......................................................................................................................24

6.3.6 Virtual exhibitions .......................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.7 Events .....................................................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.8 Virtual events ...................................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.9 Guided tours .....................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)

6.3.10 Programmes ......................................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.11 Virtual programmes ...................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.12 Publications .......................................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.13 Museum website ...........................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.14 Online services ...............................................................................................................................................................27

6.3.15 Collection information available online (at the end of the reporting period) .........27

6.3.16 Services for mobile devices offered by the museum......................................................................27

6.3.17 Social network services ..........................................................................................................................................27

6.3.18 Loans .......................................................................................................................................................................................27

6.3.19 Special services ..............................................................................................................................................................27

6.4 Collections ................................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.1 Total collection at the end of the reporting period .........................................................................28

6.4.2 Accessions...........................................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.3 Deaccessions/withdrawals ..................................................................................................................................28

6.4.4 Mode of acquisition ....................................................................................................................................................28

6.4.5 Percentage of objects in the collection on display ...........................................................................28

6.4.6 Documentary coverage of the collection ..................................................................................................28

6.5 Income and expenditure ..............................................................................................................................................................29

6.5.1 Operating (ordinary) expenditure .................................................................................................................29

6.5.2 Capital expenditure ....................................................................................................................................................30

6.5.3 Income and funding ...................................................................................................................................................30

6.6 Space .............................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.6.1 Gross floor area ..............................................................................................................................................................30

6.6.2 Net usable area for museum functions ......................................................................................................30

6.6.3 Net usable area by function .................................................................................................................................31

6.6.4 Barrier-free access ......................................................................................................................................................31

6.7 Management ...........................................................................................................................................................................................31

6.7.1 Preservation/conservation ..................................................................................................................................31

6.7.2 Digitization.........................................................................................................................................................................31

6.8 Museum staff (at the end of the reporting period) ...............................................................................................32

6.8.1 Paid staff ...............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.8.2 Volunteers ...........................................................................................................................................................................32

6.8.3 Internships and trainees ........................................................................................................................................32

6.8.4 Staff training .....................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Subdivision of collection counts ...............................................................................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
Introduction

This International Standard provides guidance to the museum community on the collection and

reporting of statistics
— for the purpose of strategic planning and internal management of museums,

— for reporting to stakeholders such as funding institutions, politicians, or the public,

— to promote the museums’ role and value for learning and research, education and culture, social and

economic life, and

— for comparing and aggregating results at a regional, national or international level.

Clause 2 and Clause 6 form the core of this International Standard. Clause 2 provides definitions for

most of the elements which constitute a museum or museum service; these are for statistical purposes

only. Clause 6 recommends how each of these elements should be counted. Users will need to consult

both clauses for the complete information.

In order to show the setting in which the defined museum services appear, Clause 3 describes the

current structure and tasks of museums. Annex A gives a structure for differentiated collection counts.

Describing and publicizing museum activities consistently can only be realized if data collection in

museums follows the lines of this International Standard. As far as possible, museums should collect all

data named in this International Standard that concern their activities.

This International Standard will be maintained by a Working Group that will monitor developments

and incorporate additional statistical measures as needed.

This International Standard has been developed in close cooperation with International Council

on Museums (ICOM) and takes advantage of, particularly, the work of European Group on Museum

Statistics (EGMUS) and of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (US).
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18461:2016(E)
International museum statistics
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies rules for the museum community on the collection and reporting

of statistics. It provides definitions and counting procedures for all types of resources and services that

museums offer to their users.

It is recognized that not all measures specified in this International Standard can be collected by

museums of different type and size. The aim is to ensure that, where a particular statistic is collected,

the same definitions and methods are used.

This International Standard is not intended to exclude the use of methods not specified in it. There

are many different types of museums, with different tasks and audiences, having a range of unique

characteristics (structure, funding, governance, etc.), and affected by a number of situational factors.

Since there is such a wide variation around the world, it is important to understand that not all methods

described in this International Standard may be required by or useful to all museums.

2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 General
2.1.1
archival records

record (2.8.11) of the same provenance accumulated by an organization or person in the course of the

conduct of affairs, and preserved because of their enduring value
2.1.2
archives

organization or part of an organization responsible for selection, acquisition (2.5.2), preservation (2.8.9)

and availability of one or more sets of archival documents
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:—, 4.2.3.01 — modified]
2.1.3
cultural heritage

legacy of physical objects and intangible attributes of a group or a society that are inherited from past

generations, maintained and protected in the present and preserved for future generations

2.1.4
library

organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information

resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational,

cultural or recreational needs of its users

Note 1 to entry: The supply of the required information resources can be accomplished by building and

maintaining a collection (2.5.9) and/or by organizing access to information resources.

Note 2 to entry: These are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and

services incidental to its main purpose.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, 2.1.6]
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.1.5
museum

non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public,

which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage

of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment

Note 1 to entry: Natural, archaeological and ethnographic monuments and sites and historical monuments and

sites of a museum nature are included, if they maintain a collection (2.5.9) similar to museums.

Note 2 to entry: Zoos (2.2.17), aquaria (2.2.1), arboreta (2.2.2) and botanic gardens (2.2.5) are included, but

should be reported separately.

Note 3 to entry: Collections in institutions of higher education that serve only the purposes of teaching and study

are excluded.

Note 4 to entry: Conservation institutes and exhibition galleries in libraries and archives centres are included if

they conform to the definition of museum.

Note 5 to entry: To conform to the definition it is not necessary that an institution be called a museum, but that it

has the role and function of a museum.
[SOURCE: ICOM, Museum definition, 2007]
2.1.6
museum site
location of a museum (2.1.5)
Note 1 to entry: Only sites operated by the museum itself are included.
2.2 Types of museums
2.2.1
aquarium

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of live aquatic animals and plants for display to the

public, study, and conservation
2.2.2
arboretum
botanic garden (2.2.5) devoted to trees
2.2.3
archaeology museum
museum (2.1.5) owing all or a part of its collections (2.5.9) to excavations
[SOURCE: UNESCO classification]
2.2.4
art museum
museum (2.1.5) concerned with works of visual art

Note 1 to entry: Includes museums of sculpture, picture galleries, museums of photography and cinema, and

museums of architecture.
Note 2 to entry: Commercial art galleries are excluded.
2.2.5
botanic garden

establishment where plants are grown for scientific study and display to the public

Note 1 to entry: Arboreta (2.2.2), herbaria (2.2.9), etc. are included.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.2.6
ecomuseum

museum (2.1.5) which is managed by local communities and aims to showcase and protect important

elements of an area’s cultural and natural heritage
2.2.7
ethnography and anthropology museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with subjects relating to culture, social structure, beliefs, customs,

traditional arts, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.8
general museum

museum (2.1.5) which has mixed collections (2.5.9) and cannot be identified by a predominant field

Note 1 to entry: “Universal museums” are considered “general museums”.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.9
herbarium

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of dried plants for display to the public, study and

conservation
2.2.10
history museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with the history of a defined geographic area or a cultural group of people

over a limited period or over the centuries

Note 1 to entry: Includes museums with collections (2.5.9) of historical objects, commemorative museums,

military museums, museums on historical persons, etc.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.11
living history museum
museum (2.1.5) which recreates historical settings to simulate past time periods
2.2.12
natural history museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with subjects relating to one or several disciplines such as biology, geology,

botany, zoology, palaeontology and ecology
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.13
open-air museum

museum (2.1.5) that exhibits buildings and objects out-of-doors, often in archaeological sites, past

industrial or mining heritage sites and settings of recreated landscapes of the past, and which includes

the site around the buildings
2.2.14
science and technology museum

museum (2.1.5) concerned with exact sciences or technologies such as astronomy, mathematics, physics,

chemistry, medical science, computing, engineering, and applied sciences
Note 1 to entry: Planetaria and science centres are included.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18461:2017
ISO 18461:2016(E)
2.2.15
specialized museum
museum (2.1.5) concerned with all aspects of a single subject
Note 1 to entry: Examples for single subjects are “cats” or “Jonathan Swift”.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the UNESCO classification.
2.2.16
virtual museum

online-only museum (2.1.5) without physical building or physical collection (2.5.9)

Note 1 to entry: Physical museums with online presence are excluded.

Note 2 to entry: Virtual museums can also be denoted as online museum, hypermuseum, digital museum,

cybermuseum or web museum.
2.2.17
zoo

establishment that maintains a collection (2.5.9) of live animals, typically in a park or in gardens, for

display to the public, study, and conservation
2.3 Governing authority of museums
2.3.1
governing authority

body with legal and fiduciary responsibility for the museum (2.1.5) and for approving museum policy

Note 1 to entry: The governing authority can be represented by
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.