Information and documentation -- Methods and procedures for assessing the impact of libraries

ISO 16439:2014 defines terms for impact assessment of libraries and specifies methods for such assessment: for the purpose of strategic planning and internal quality management of libraries; to facilitate comparison of library impact over time and between libraries of similar type and mission; to promote the libraries' role and value for learning and research, education and culture, social and economic life; to support political decisions on levels of service and strategic goals for libraries. ISO 16439:2014 considers the impact of libraries on individuals, institutions and society. It is applicable to all types of libraries in all countries. However, not all methods described apply to all libraries. Limitations on the applicability of individual methods are specified in the descriptions.

Information et documentation -- Méthodes et procédures pour évaluer l'impact des bibliothèques

Informatika in dokumentacija - Metode in postopki za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic

Ta mednarodni standard določa izraze za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic in specifične metode za tako ocenjevanje:
– za namene strateškega načrtovanja in notranjega vodenja kakovosti knjižnic;
– za primerjavo vpliva knjižnic v daljšem časovnem obdobju in za primerjavo med knjižnicami iste vrste in z istim poslanstvom;
– za spodbujanje vloge in vrednosti knjižnic pri učenju in raziskavah, pri izobraževanju in kulturi, v družbenem in
ekonomskem življenju:
– za podporo pri političnih odločitvah na ravni storitvenih in strateških ciljev za knjižnice.
Ta mednarodni standard obravnava vpliv knjižnic na posameznike, institucije in družbo.
Uporablja se za vse vrste knjižnic v vseh državah. Vendar se vse metode, ki so opisane v tem mednarodnem standardu, ne uporabljajo za vse knjižnice. Omejitve uporabnosti posameznih metod so
določene v opisih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Apr-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Mar-2014
Completion Date
10-Apr-2014

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16439
First edition
2014-04-15
Information and documentation —
Methods and procedures for assessing
the impact of libraries
Information et documentation — Méthodes et procédures pour
évaluer l’impact des bibliothèques
Reference number
ISO 16439:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Definition and description of library impact .......................................................................................................................13

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2 Definition of library impact .......................................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Aspects of library impact ............................................................................................................................................................13

4.4 Effects of library impact ...............................................................................................................................................................14

4.5 Impact planning ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.6 Challenges in assessing impact ..............................................................................................................................................18

4.7 Implementation of impact assessment projects .....................................................................................................19

4.8 Use of impact assessment results ........................................................................................................................................20

5 Methods for assessing library impact .........................................................................................................................................21

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

5.2 Inferred evidence ...............................................................................................................................................................................21

5.3 Solicited evidence ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Observed evidence ............................................................................................................................................................................22

5.5 Combined methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................22

5.6 Quantitative and qualitative data .........................................................................................................................................23

6 Inferred evidence..............................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.2 Statistics .....................................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.3 Library performance indicators ............................................................................................................................................25

6.4 Data from user satisfaction surveys ..................................................................................................................................27

7 Solicited evidence .............................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2 Impact surveys .....................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.3 Interviews and focus groups ....................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Self-assessment of users ..............................................................................................................................................................42

7.5 Collecting anecdotal evidence ................................................................................................................................................44

8 Observed evidence ..........................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.2 Observation .............................................................................................................................................................................................47

8.3 Log analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................................48

8.4 Self-recording ........................................................................................................................................................................................48

8.5 Citation analysis ..................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.6 Testing the impact on knowledge and skills ...............................................................................................................49

9 Combining methods for assessing library impact ..........................................................................................................53

9.1 Combining qualitative and quantitative data ............................................................................................................53

9.2 Examples of combining methods to show library impact ..............................................................................54

9.3 Advantages and disadvantages of combining methods for impact assessment ..........................57

10 Assessing the economic value of libraries ..............................................................................................................................57

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................57

10.2 Calculating the value of library benefits to users ...................................................................................................58

10.3 Cost-benefit analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................62

10.4 Economic impact analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................63

Annex A (informative) Examples of impact surveys ..........................................................................................................................65

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)

Annex B (informative) Choosing a method .................................................................................................................................................71

Annex C (informative) Library impact assessment within broader institutional and

organisational assessment .....................................................................................................................................................................75

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................80

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Introduction

This International Standard provides guidance to the library community on methods for assessing the

impact and value of libraries. It was developed in response to worldwide demand for specifications of

library impact assessment.

The methods described in this International Standard do not reflect all possible methods or evaluation

techniques, but are those seen to be most heavily used and that have proved most effective for assessing

library impact. This International Standard is not intended to exclude the use of assessment methods

not specified in it.

There are many different types of libraries, with different tasks and populations, having a range of

unique characteristics (structure, funding, governance, etc.), and affected by a number of situational

factors. Since there is such a wide variation around the world, it is important to understand that not all

methods described in this International Standard are useful to all libraries.

Annex A of this International Standard gives examples of impact surveys. Annex B recommends a choice

of methods for different purposes. Annex C describes the case that library impact is assessed within

broader institutional and organisational assessment.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16439:2014(E)
Information and documentation — Methods and
procedures for assessing the impact of libraries
1 Scope

This International Standard defines terms for impact assessment of libraries and specifies methods for

such assessment

— for the purpose of strategic planning and internal quality management of libraries;

— to facilitate comparison of library impact over time and between libraries of similar type and

mission;

— to promote the libraries’ role and value for learning and research, education and culture, social and

economic life;

— to support political decisions on levels of service and strategic goals for libraries.

This International Standard considers the impact of libraries on individuals, institutions and society.

It is applicable to all types of libraries in all countries. However, not all methods described in this

International Standard apply to all libraries. Limitations on the applicability of individual methods are

specified in the descriptions.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2789:2013, Information and documentation — International library statistics
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
academic library

library whose primary function is to cover the information needs of learning and research

Note 1 to entry: This includes libraries of institutions of higher education and general research libraries.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.1]
3.2
access
ability of reaching and using a service or facility
3.3
accessibility
ease of reaching and using a service or facility
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.2]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.4
active user

registered user who has visited or made use of library facilities or services during the reporting period

Note 1 to entry: This may include the use of electronic library services, if it is possible to identify electronic use

and virtual visits of the individual user, or if data can be assessed with the help of surveys.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.3]
3.5
anecdotal evidence

evidence based on anecdotes or stories, obtained informally from personal observations and experiences,

not collected systematically nor empirically tested
3.6
availability

degree to which content, documents, facilities or services are actually provided by the library at the

time required by users
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.6]
3.7
benefit
helpful or good effect, or something intended to help
3.8
consumer surplus

amount of money by which consumers value a product or service above its purchase price

3.9
contingent valuation

method for assessing the economic value of non-profit institutions and projects of public utility

depending on potential users’ responses to survey questions, such as what they are willing to pay for a

benefit or feature (willingness-to-pay), or what they would accept as financial compensation if a certain

benefit or feature was missing (willingness-to-accept)

Note 1 to entry: The method is used in environmental protection and health care, for example.

3.10
cost-benefit analysis

process that assesses the relation between the cost of an undertaking and the monetary value of the

resulting benefits
3.11
critical incident technique
CIT

research approach designed to draw out the most memorable aspects of an event or experience

Note 1 to entry: Critical incident technique can be used in individual interviews, focus group interviews or surveys.

3.12
cultural economics

branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes and explores cultural

phenomena as economic factors
3.13
data mining

computational process that identifies patterns by analysing quantitative data from different perspectives

and dimensions, categorizing it, and summarizing potential relationships and impacts

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.14
digitization
process of converting analogue materials into digital form

Note 1 to entry: Digitization for document supply from the library collection to a user or institution is excluded

Note 2 to entry: Digitization for preservation purposes is included.
Note 3 to entry: Mass digitization is included.

Note 4 to entry: Purchase of electronic copies for replacing print copies is excluded.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.15]
3.15
document

recorded information or material object, which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

Note 1 to entry: Documents can differ in form and characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.02]
3.16
economic impact

effect of a policy, institution, programme, or event on the economy of a given area

Note 1 to entry: Economic impact is usually measured in terms of changes in economic growth (output or value

added) and associated changes in jobs (employment) and income (wages).
3.17
effectiveness
measure of the degree to which given objectives are achieved

Note 1 to entry: An activity is effective if it maximizes the results it was established to produce.

[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.15]
3.18
efficiency
measure of the utilization of resources to realize a given objective

Note 1 to entry: An activity is efficient if it minimizes the use of resources, or produces better performance with

the same resources.
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.16]
3.19
electronic collection

all resources in electronic form in the library collection, whether born digital or digitized

Note 1 to entry: The electronic collection includes databases, electronic serials, and digital documents. Free

Internet resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database should be

counted separately.

Note 2 to entry: The resources can be networked, installed on stand-alone workstations or stored on physical

carriers.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.21]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.20
electronic service

library service delivered via electronic means, whether from local servers or provided via networks

Note 1 to entry: Electronic library services include the online catalogue, the library website, the electronic

collection, electronic document delivery (mediated), electronic reference service, user training by electronic

means, services for mobile devices, services for interactive use (including services on social networks), and

Internet access offered via the library.

Note 2 to entry: This does not include booking physical services (e.g. rooms or library tours) by electronic means.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.8]
3.21
evaluation

process of estimating the effectiveness, efficiency, utility and relevance of a service or facility

[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.19]
3.22
event

pre-arranged activity with cultural, educational, social, political, scholarly, or other intent, e.g.

exhibitions, author visits, literary discussions, workshops, etc.

Note 1 to entry: Only events arranged by the library on its own or in partnership with other institutions are

included, whether inside or outside the library premises. Events inside the library premises organized by

institutions outside the library without the library’s cooperation are excluded.
Note 2 to entry: User training lessons and library tours are excluded.

Note 3 to entry: Ongoing programmes are included. Each session of a programme is counted as one event.

Note 4 to entry: Virtual events are included.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.9]
3.23
focus group interview
focus group discussion

group interview in the form of a moderated discussion among a small number of selected individuals on

topics introduced by the moderator
3.24
goal
desired state of affairs to be achieved by the implementation of agreed policies
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.24]
3.25
impact

difference or change in an individual or group resulting from the contact with library services

Note 1 to entry: The change can be tangible or intangible.
3.26
information literacy

the ability to recognize a need for information and to identify, retrieve, evaluate, and use information

effectively

Note 1 to entry: Literacy in the sense of being able to read and write with a minimal level of proficiency is

fundamental for information literacy.

Note 2 to entry: This includes the skills for using information technology to access and retrieve information.

4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.27
informational question
directional and/or administrative inquiry delivered to library staff

Note 1 to entry: This includes e.g. questions for locating staff or facilities, questions regarding opening times and

registering procedures and questions about handling equipment such as printers or computer terminals.

Note 2 to entry: The question can be delivered personally or by means of telephone, regular mail, fax or electronic

media (via email, the library website or other networked communication mechanisms).

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.13]
3.28
input

contribution of resources in support of a library (e.g. funding, staff, collections, space, equipment)

3.29
Internet access

Internet connection by a user from a workstation owned by the library or from a user’s private computer

in the library via the library’s network

Note 1 to entry: Internet accesses can only be counted if users have registered or authenticated themselves when

accessing the Internet.

Note 2 to entry: Internet access via a user’s private computer (e.g. laptop or hand-held) via the library’s wireless

network inside the library should be counted and reported separately.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.17]
3.30
interview

oral questioning technique which results in a transfer of information from the interviewee to an

interviewer or researcher

Note 1 to entry: This technique obtains direct reactions to questions, in contrast to written questionnaires or

self-assessment (self-recording).

Note 2 to entry: Interviews can be subdivided according to the number of interviewees into one-to-one interviews

and group interviews.
Note 3 to entry: Interviews can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.

Note 4 to entry: Where semi-structured or unstructured interviews are used with a group of respondents, these

are usually described as focus groups or group discussions.
3.31
library

organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information

resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational,

cultural or recreational needs of its users

Note 1 to entry: The supply of the required information resources can be accomplished by building and maintaining

a collection and/or by organizing access to information resources.

Note 2 to entry: These are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and

services incidental to its main purpose.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.6]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.32
library collection
all documents provided by a library for its users

Note 1 to entry: Comprises information resources held locally and remote resources for which access rights have

been acquired.

Note 2 to entry: Access rights can be acquired by the library itself, by a consortium and/or through external

funding.

Note 3 to entry: Acquisition is to be understood as deliberately selecting a document, securing access rights and

including it in the online catalogue or other databases of the library. Interlibrary lending and document delivery

are excluded.

Note 4 to entry: Does not include links to Internet resources for which the library has not secured access rights

by legal agreements (e.g. legal deposit right), license or other contractual and/or cooperative agreement. Free

Internet resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database should be

counted separately.

Note 5 to entry: Documents in institutional repositories are not included, but should be counted separately, if the

library is involved in collecting the items and/or operating the repository.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.28]
3.33
library of an institution of higher education

library whose primary function is to serve students, academic and professional staff in universities and

other institutions of education at the third (tertiary) level and above
Note 1 to entry: It may also serve the general public.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.7]
3.34
library website

unique domain on the Internet consisting of a collection of web pages that is published by a library to

provide access to the library’s services and resources

Note 1 to entry: The pages of a website are usually interconnected by the use of hypertext links.

Note 2 to entry: Excludes documents that fit the definitions of electronic collection and free Internet resources

that may be linked from the library website.

Note 3 to entry: Excludes web services in the library’s domain that are operated on behalf of other organizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.18]
3.35
longitudinal study

two or more surveys, in which the same or a similar survey instrument is administered more than once

to the same population, after a suitable time period has elapsed, to measure changes in patterns of

usage, perceptions, attitudes, etc.
3.36
mission

statement approved by the authorities formulating the organization’s goals and its choices in services

and products development
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.33]
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.37
national library

library that is responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all relevant documents in the country

in which the library is located; it may function as a legal deposit library

Note 1 to entry: A national library will also normally perform some or all of the following functions: produce

the national bibliography, hold and keep up to date a large and representative collection of foreign literature

including documents about the country; act as a national bibliographic information centre; compile union

catalogues; supervise the administration of other libraries and/or promote collaboration; coordinate a research

and development service, etc.

Note 2 to entry: The definition of “national library” allows for more than one national library in a country.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.9]
3.38
nominal group interview
group interview
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 16439:2015
01-januar-2015
Informatika in dokumentacija - Metode in postopki za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic

Information and documentation -- Methods and procedures for assessing the impact of

libraries
Information et documentation -- Méthodes et procédures pour évaluer l'impact des
bibliothèques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 16439:2014
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST ISO 16439:2015 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16439
First edition
2014-04-15
Information and documentation —
Methods and procedures for assessing
the impact of libraries
Information et documentation — Méthodes et procédures pour
évaluer l’impact des bibliothèques
Reference number
ISO 16439:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Definition and description of library impact .......................................................................................................................13

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2 Definition of library impact .......................................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Aspects of library impact ............................................................................................................................................................13

4.4 Effects of library impact ...............................................................................................................................................................14

4.5 Impact planning ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.6 Challenges in assessing impact ..............................................................................................................................................18

4.7 Implementation of impact assessment projects .....................................................................................................19

4.8 Use of impact assessment results ........................................................................................................................................20

5 Methods for assessing library impact .........................................................................................................................................21

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

5.2 Inferred evidence ...............................................................................................................................................................................21

5.3 Solicited evidence ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Observed evidence ............................................................................................................................................................................22

5.5 Combined methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................22

5.6 Quantitative and qualitative data .........................................................................................................................................23

6 Inferred evidence..............................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.2 Statistics .....................................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.3 Library performance indicators ............................................................................................................................................25

6.4 Data from user satisfaction surveys ..................................................................................................................................27

7 Solicited evidence .............................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2 Impact surveys .....................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.3 Interviews and focus groups ....................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Self-assessment of users ..............................................................................................................................................................42

7.5 Collecting anecdotal evidence ................................................................................................................................................44

8 Observed evidence ..........................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.2 Observation .............................................................................................................................................................................................47

8.3 Log analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................................48

8.4 Self-recording ........................................................................................................................................................................................48

8.5 Citation analysis ..................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.6 Testing the impact on knowledge and skills ...............................................................................................................49

9 Combining methods for assessing library impact ..........................................................................................................53

9.1 Combining qualitative and quantitative data ............................................................................................................53

9.2 Examples of combining methods to show library impact ..............................................................................54

9.3 Advantages and disadvantages of combining methods for impact assessment ..........................57

10 Assessing the economic value of libraries ..............................................................................................................................57

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................57

10.2 Calculating the value of library benefits to users ...................................................................................................58

10.3 Cost-benefit analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................62

10.4 Economic impact analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................63

Annex A (informative) Examples of impact surveys ..........................................................................................................................65

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)

Annex B (informative) Choosing a method .................................................................................................................................................71

Annex C (informative) Library impact assessment within broader institutional and

organisational assessment .....................................................................................................................................................................75

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................80

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 8, Quality — Statistics and performance evaluation.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
Introduction

This International Standard provides guidance to the library community on methods for assessing the

impact and value of libraries. It was developed in response to worldwide demand for specifications of

library impact assessment.

The methods described in this International Standard do not reflect all possible methods or evaluation

techniques, but are those seen to be most heavily used and that have proved most effective for assessing

library impact. This International Standard is not intended to exclude the use of assessment methods

not specified in it.

There are many different types of libraries, with different tasks and populations, having a range of

unique characteristics (structure, funding, governance, etc.), and affected by a number of situational

factors. Since there is such a wide variation around the world, it is important to understand that not all

methods described in this International Standard are useful to all libraries.

Annex A of this International Standard gives examples of impact surveys. Annex B recommends a choice

of methods for different purposes. Annex C describes the case that library impact is assessed within

broader institutional and organisational assessment.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16439:2014(E)
Information and documentation — Methods and
procedures for assessing the impact of libraries
1 Scope

This International Standard defines terms for impact assessment of libraries and specifies methods for

such assessment

— for the purpose of strategic planning and internal quality management of libraries;

— to facilitate comparison of library impact over time and between libraries of similar type and

mission;

— to promote the libraries’ role and value for learning and research, education and culture, social and

economic life;

— to support political decisions on levels of service and strategic goals for libraries.

This International Standard considers the impact of libraries on individuals, institutions and society.

It is applicable to all types of libraries in all countries. However, not all methods described in this

International Standard apply to all libraries. Limitations on the applicability of individual methods are

specified in the descriptions.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2789:2013, Information and documentation — International library statistics
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
academic library

library whose primary function is to cover the information needs of learning and research

Note 1 to entry: This includes libraries of institutions of higher education and general research libraries.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.1]
3.2
access
ability of reaching and using a service or facility
3.3
accessibility
ease of reaching and using a service or facility
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.2]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.4
active user

registered user who has visited or made use of library facilities or services during the reporting period

Note 1 to entry: This may include the use of electronic library services, if it is possible to identify electronic use

and virtual visits of the individual user, or if data can be assessed with the help of surveys.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.3]
3.5
anecdotal evidence

evidence based on anecdotes or stories, obtained informally from personal observations and experiences,

not collected systematically nor empirically tested
3.6
availability

degree to which content, documents, facilities or services are actually provided by the library at the

time required by users
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.6]
3.7
benefit
helpful or good effect, or something intended to help
3.8
consumer surplus

amount of money by which consumers value a product or service above its purchase price

3.9
contingent valuation

method for assessing the economic value of non-profit institutions and projects of public utility

depending on potential users’ responses to survey questions, such as what they are willing to pay for a

benefit or feature (willingness-to-pay), or what they would accept as financial compensation if a certain

benefit or feature was missing (willingness-to-accept)

Note 1 to entry: The method is used in environmental protection and health care, for example.

3.10
cost-benefit analysis

process that assesses the relation between the cost of an undertaking and the monetary value of the

resulting benefits
3.11
critical incident technique
CIT

research approach designed to draw out the most memorable aspects of an event or experience

Note 1 to entry: Critical incident technique can be used in individual interviews, focus group interviews or surveys.

3.12
cultural economics

branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes and explores cultural

phenomena as economic factors
3.13
data mining

computational process that identifies patterns by analysing quantitative data from different perspectives

and dimensions, categorizing it, and summarizing potential relationships and impacts

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.14
digitization
process of converting analogue materials into digital form

Note 1 to entry: Digitization for document supply from the library collection to a user or institution is excluded

Note 2 to entry: Digitization for preservation purposes is included.
Note 3 to entry: Mass digitization is included.

Note 4 to entry: Purchase of electronic copies for replacing print copies is excluded.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.15]
3.15
document

recorded information or material object, which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

Note 1 to entry: Documents can differ in form and characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2001, definition 1.2.02]
3.16
economic impact

effect of a policy, institution, programme, or event on the economy of a given area

Note 1 to entry: Economic impact is usually measured in terms of changes in economic growth (output or value

added) and associated changes in jobs (employment) and income (wages).
3.17
effectiveness
measure of the degree to which given objectives are achieved

Note 1 to entry: An activity is effective if it maximizes the results it was established to produce.

[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.15]
3.18
efficiency
measure of the utilization of resources to realize a given objective

Note 1 to entry: An activity is efficient if it minimizes the use of resources, or produces better performance with

the same resources.
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.16]
3.19
electronic collection

all resources in electronic form in the library collection, whether born digital or digitized

Note 1 to entry: The electronic collection includes databases, electronic serials, and digital documents. Free

Internet resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database should be

counted separately.

Note 2 to entry: The resources can be networked, installed on stand-alone workstations or stored on physical

carriers.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.21]
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.20
electronic service

library service delivered via electronic means, whether from local servers or provided via networks

Note 1 to entry: Electronic library services include the online catalogue, the library website, the electronic

collection, electronic document delivery (mediated), electronic reference service, user training by electronic

means, services for mobile devices, services for interactive use (including services on social networks), and

Internet access offered via the library.

Note 2 to entry: This does not include booking physical services (e.g. rooms or library tours) by electronic means.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.8]
3.21
evaluation

process of estimating the effectiveness, efficiency, utility and relevance of a service or facility

[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.19]
3.22
event

pre-arranged activity with cultural, educational, social, political, scholarly, or other intent, e.g.

exhibitions, author visits, literary discussions, workshops, etc.

Note 1 to entry: Only events arranged by the library on its own or in partnership with other institutions are

included, whether inside or outside the library premises. Events inside the library premises organized by

institutions outside the library without the library’s cooperation are excluded.
Note 2 to entry: User training lessons and library tours are excluded.

Note 3 to entry: Ongoing programmes are included. Each session of a programme is counted as one event.

Note 4 to entry: Virtual events are included.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.9]
3.23
focus group interview
focus group discussion

group interview in the form of a moderated discussion among a small number of selected individuals on

topics introduced by the moderator
3.24
goal
desired state of affairs to be achieved by the implementation of agreed policies
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.24]
3.25
impact

difference or change in an individual or group resulting from the contact with library services

Note 1 to entry: The change can be tangible or intangible.
3.26
information literacy

the ability to recognize a need for information and to identify, retrieve, evaluate, and use information

effectively

Note 1 to entry: Literacy in the sense of being able to read and write with a minimal level of proficiency is

fundamental for information literacy.

Note 2 to entry: This includes the skills for using information technology to access and retrieve information.

4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.27
informational question
directional and/or administrative inquiry delivered to library staff

Note 1 to entry: This includes e.g. questions for locating staff or facilities, questions regarding opening times and

registering procedures and questions about handling equipment such as printers or computer terminals.

Note 2 to entry: The question can be delivered personally or by means of telephone, regular mail, fax or electronic

media (via email, the library website or other networked communication mechanisms).

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.13]
3.28
input

contribution of resources in support of a library (e.g. funding, staff, collections, space, equipment)

3.29
Internet access

Internet connection by a user from a workstation owned by the library or from a user’s private computer

in the library via the library’s network

Note 1 to entry: Internet accesses can only be counted if users have registered or authenticated themselves when

accessing the Internet.

Note 2 to entry: Internet access via a user’s private computer (e.g. laptop or hand-held) via the library’s wireless

network inside the library should be counted and reported separately.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.17]
3.30
interview

oral questioning technique which results in a transfer of information from the interviewee to an

interviewer or researcher

Note 1 to entry: This technique obtains direct reactions to questions, in contrast to written questionnaires or

self-assessment (self-recording).

Note 2 to entry: Interviews can be subdivided according to the number of interviewees into one-to-one interviews

and group interviews.
Note 3 to entry: Interviews can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.

Note 4 to entry: Where semi-structured or unstructured interviews are used with a group of respondents, these

are usually described as focus groups or group discussions.
3.31
library

organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information

resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational,

cultural or recreational needs of its users

Note 1 to entry: The supply of the required information resources can be accomplished by building and maintaining

a collection and/or by organizing access to information resources.

Note 2 to entry: These are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and

services incidental to its main purpose.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.6]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 16439:2015
ISO 16439:2014(E)
3.32
library collection
all documents provided by a library for its users

Note 1 to entry: Comprises information resources held locally and remote resources for which access rights have

been acquired.

Note 2 to entry: Access rights can be acquired by the library itself, by a consortium and/or through external

funding.

Note 3 to entry: Acquisition is to be understood as deliberately selecting a document, securing access rights and

including it in the online catalogue or other databases of the library. Interlibrary lending and document delivery

are excluded.

Note 4 to entry: Does not include links to Internet resources for which the library has not secured access rights

by legal agreements (e.g. legal deposit right), license or other contractual and/or cooperative agreement. Free

Internet resources which have been catalogued by the library in its online catalogue or a database should be

counted separately.

Note 5 to entry: Documents in institutional repositories are not included, but should be counted separately, if the

library is involved in collecting the items and/or operating the repository.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.3.28]
3.33
library of an institution of higher education

library whose primary function is to serve students, academic and professional staff in universities and

other institutions of education at the third (tertiary) level and above
Note 1 to entry: It may also serve the general public.
[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.7]
3.34
library website

unique domain on the Internet consisting of a collection of web pages that is published by a library to

provide access to the library’s services and resources

Note 1 to entry: The pages of a website are usually interconnected by the use of hypertext links.

Note 2 to entry: Excludes documents that fit the definitions of electronic collection and free Internet resources

that may be linked from the library website.

Note 3 to entry: Excludes web services in the library’s domain that are operated on behalf of other organizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.2.18]
3.35
longitudinal study

two or more surveys, in which the same or a similar survey instrument is administered more than once

to the same population, after a suitable time period has elapsed, to measure changes in patterns of

usage, perceptions, attitudes, etc.
3.36
mission

statement approved by the authorities formulating the organization’s goals and its choices in services

and products development
[SOURCE: ISO 11620:—, definition 3.33]
6 © ISO 2014 – A
...

S L O V E N S K I SIST ISO 16439
STANDARD
januar 2015
Informatika in dokumentacija – Metode in postopki za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic
Information and documentation – Methods and procedures for assessing the
impact of libraries
Information et documentation – Méthodes et procédures pour évaluer l'impact
des bibliothèques
Information und Dokumentation – Methoden und Verfahren zur Bestimmung der
Wirkung von Bibliotheken
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 01.140.20 SIST ISO 16439:2015 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh od 2 do 90

© 2016-11. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST ISO 16439 (sl), Informatika in dokumentacija – Metode in postopki za ocenjevanje vpliva

knjižnic, 2015, ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten mednarodnemu standardu ISO 16439

(en), Information and documentation – Methods and procedures for assessing the impact of libraries,

2014-04.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard ISO 16439:2014 je pripravil pododbor tehničnega odbora Mednarodne

organizacije za standardizacijo ISO/TC 46/SC 8 Kakovost – Statistika in vrednotenje uspešnosti.

Slovenski standard SIST ISO 16439:2015 je prevod mednarodnega standarda ISO 16439:2014.

Slovenski standard SIST ISO 16439:2015 je pripravil tehnični odbor SIST/TC IDT Informatika,

dokumentacija in splošna terminologija. V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda je

odločilen izvirni mednarodni standard v angleškem jeziku.

Definicije pojmov so povzete po mednarodnem standardu ISO 2789, Informatika in dokumentacija –

Mednarodna statistika za knjižnice.

Odločitev za izdajo tega standarda je dne 20. oktobra 2014 sprejel SIST/TC IDO Informatika in

dokumentacija.
ZVEZA Z NACIONALNIMI STANDARDI

S privzemom tega mednarodnega standarda veljajo za omenjeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen tistih, ki so že sprejeti v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST ISO 2789:2013 Informatika in dokumentacija – Mednarodna statistika knjižnic

SIST ISO 5127:2005 Informatika in dokumentacija – Slovar (ISO 5127:2001)

SIST EN ISO 9000:2005 Sistemi vodenja kakovosti – Osnove in slovar (ISO 9000:2005)

SIST ISO 11620:2015 Informatika in dokumentacija – Kazalci uspešnosti knjižnic
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda ISO 16439:2014
OPOMBI

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz "mednarodni standard", v SIST ISO

16439:2015 to pomeni "slovenski standard".
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor ................................................................................................................................................ 5

Uvod ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

1 Področje uporabe ................................................................................................................................ 7

2 Zveze s standardi ................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Izrazi in definicije ................................................................................................................................. 7

4 Definicija in opis vpliva knjižnice ....................................................................................................... 18

4.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 18

4.2 Definicija vpliva knjižnice ................................................................................................................ 19

4.3 Vidiki vpliva knjižnice ...................................................................................................................... 19

4.4 Učinki vpliva knjižnice ..................................................................................................................... 19

4.5 Planiranje vpliva ............................................................................................................................. 23

4.6 Izzivi pri ocenjevanju vpliva ............................................................................................................ 23

4.7 Izvajanje projektov za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnice ....................................................................... 25

4.8 Uporaba rezultatov ocenjevanja vpliva knjižnice ............................................................................ 25

5 Metode za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnice ............................................................................................ 26

5.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 26

5.2 Povzeti dokaz ................................................................................................................................. 26

5.3 Zbrani dokaz ................................................................................................................................... 27

5.4 Opazovani dokaz ............................................................................................................................ 27

5.5 Kombinirane metode ...................................................................................................................... 28

5.6 Kvantitativni in kvalitativni podatki .................................................................................................. 28

6 Povzeti dokaz .................................................................................................................................... 30

6.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 30

6.2 Statistike ......................................................................................................................................... 30

6.3 Kazalci uspešnosti knjižnice ........................................................................................................... 31

6.4 Podatki iz raziskav o zadovoljstvu uporabnikov ............................................................................. 33

7 Zbrani dokaz ...................................................................................................................................... 34

7.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 34

7.2 Raziskave vpliva knjižnice .............................................................................................................. 34

7.3 Intervjuji in fokusne skupine ........................................................................................................... 43

7.4 Samoocenjevanje uporabnikov ...................................................................................................... 49

7.5 Zbiranje anekdotskih dokazov ........................................................................................................ 51

8 Opazovani dokaz ............................................................................................................................... 53

8.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 53

8.2 Opazovanje .................................................................................................................................... 53

8.3 Analiza dnevniških datotek ............................................................................................................. 54

8.4 Zapiski uporabnikov ........................................................................................................................ 55

8.5 Analiza navedb ............................................................................................................................... 55

8.6 Testiranje vpliva na znanje in veščine ............................................................................................ 56

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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015

9 Kombiniranje metod za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnice ........................................................................ 60

9.1 Kombiniranje kvalitativnih in kvantitativnih podatkov ..................................................................... 60

9.2 Primeri kombiniranja metod za prikazovanje vpliva knjižnice ........................................................ 61

9.3 Prednosti in slabosti kombiniranja metod za ocenjevanje vpliva ................................................... 64

10 Ocenjevanje ekonomske vrednosti knjižnice .................................................................................. 65

10.1 Splošno ......................................................................................................................................... 65

10.2 Izračun vrednosti koristi knjižnice za uporabnike ......................................................................... 65

10.3 Analiza stroškov in koristi ............................................................................................................. 70

10.4 Analiza ekonomskega vpliva knjižnice ......................................................................................... 71

Dodatek A (informativni): Primeri raziskav vpliva knjižnice .................................................................. 73

Dodatek B (informativni): Izbira metode ............................................................................................... 79

Dodatek C (informativni): Ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnice v sklopu širšega institucionalnega in

organizacijskega ocenjevanja .......................................................................................................... 83

Literatura................................................................................................................................................ 88

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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
Predgovor

ISO (Mednarodna organizacija za standardizacijo) je svetovna zveza nacionalnih organov za standarde

(članov ISO). Mednarodne standarde običajno pripravljajo tehnični odbori ISO. Vsak član, ki želi delovati

na določenem področju, za katerega je bil ustanovljen tehnični odbor, ima pravico biti zastopan v tem

odboru. Pri delu sodelujejo mednarodne vladne in nevladne organizacije, povezane z ISO. V vseh

zadevah, ki so povezane s standardizacijo na področju elektrotehnike, ISO tesno sodeluje z

Mednarodno elektrotehniško komisijo (IEC).

Postopki, uporabljeni pri razvoju tega dokumenta, ter postopki, namenjeni za njegovo nadaljnje

vzdrževanje, so opisani v Direktivah ISO/IEC, 1. del. Upoštevati je treba tudi različna merila za odobritev,

ki se uporabljajo za različne vrste dokumentov ISO. Ta dokument je bil pripravljen v skladu z uredniškimi

pravili v Direktivah ISO/IEC, 2. del (glej tudi www.iso.org/directives).

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da je lahko nekaj elementov tega mednarodnega standarda predmet

patentnih pravic. ISO ne prevzema odgovornosti za ugotavljanje katerihkoli ali vseh takih patentnih

pravic. Podrobnosti vseh patentnih pravic, ki se pojavijo v tem dokumentu, bodo navedene v uvodu in/ali

na seznamu patentnih prijav ISO (glej www.iso.org/patents).

Vsaka blagovna znamka, uporabljena v tem dokumentu, služi le kot informacija uporabnikom za lažje

razumevanje in ne pomeni njenega promoviranja.

Za razlago pomena določenih terminov in izrazov ISO, povezanih z ugotavljanjem skladnosti, ter za

informacije o upoštevanju načel WTO o tehničnih ovirah pri trgovanju (TBT) pri ISO glej naslednji URL:

Foreword - Supplementary information.

Za ta dokument je odgovoren tehnični odbor ISO/TC 46 Informatika in dokumentacija, pododbor SC 8

Kakovost – Statistika in vrednotenje uspešnosti.
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
Uvod

Ta mednarodni standard zagotavlja navodila za knjižnično skupnost o metodah za ocenjevanje vpliva

in vrednosti knjižnic. Razvit je bil zaradi splošnih zahtev po specifikacijah za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnice.

Metode, opisane v tem mednarodnem standardu, ne vključujejo vseh mogočih metod ali tehnik

vrednotenja; standard vključuje le metode ali tehnike, ki se najpogosteje uporabljajo in so dokazano

najuspešnejše pri ocenjevanju vpliva knjižnice. Ta mednarodni standard ne izključuje uporabe metod

za ocenjevanje, ki v njem niso navedene.

Obstajajo številne različne vrste knjižnic, z različnimi nalogami in ciljnimi populacijami; te knjižnice imajo

številne edinstvene značilnosti (struktura, financerji, upravljanje itd.), nanje vplivajo različni situacijski

dejavniki. Zaradi te raznolikosti v strukturi knjižnic po svetu je treba razumeti, da vseh metod, opisanih

v tem mednarodnem standardu, ni mogoče uporabiti v vseh knjižnicah.

V dodatku A so navedeni primeri raziskav vpliva. Dodatek B priporoča izbiro metod za različne namene.

Dodatek C opisuje primer ocenjevanja vpliva knjižnice v sklopu širšega institucionalnega in

organizacijskega ocenjevanja.
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
Informatika in dokumentacija – Metode in postopki za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic
1 Področje uporabe

Ta mednarodni standard določa izraze za ocenjevanje vpliva knjižnic ter metode za ocenjevanje vpliva:

– za namen strateškega načrtovanja in internega sistema vodenja kakovosti knjižnic,

– za omogočanje primerjav vpliva knjižnice v daljšem časovnem obdobju ter primerjav med

knjižnicami podobnih vrst in poslanstva,

– za promoviranje vloge in vrednosti knjižnic na učnem, raziskovalnem, izobraževalnem, kulturnem,

socialnem in ekonomskem področju,

– za podporo političnim odločitvam o ravni storitev in strateških ciljih knjižnic.

Ta mednarodni standard obravnava vpliv knjižnic na posameznike, institucije in celotno družbo.

Uporablja se lahko za vse vrste knjižnic v vseh državah, vendar pa vseh metod, opisanih v tem

mednarodnem standardu, ni mogoče uporabiti v vseh knjižnicah. Omejitve uporabe posameznih metod

so opredeljene v opisih metod.
2 Zveze s standardi

Za uporabo tega standarda so, delno ali v celoti, nujno potrebni spodaj navedeni referenčni dokumenti.

Pri datiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja le navedena izdaja. Pri nedatiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja

zadnja izdaja publikacije (vključno z dopolnili).
ISO 2789:2013 Informatika in dokumentacija – Mednarodna statistika za knjižnice
3 Izrazi in definicije
V tem dokumentu se uporabljajo naslednji izrazi in definicije.
3.1
visokošolska knjižnica

knjižnica, katere primarna funkcija je pokrivanje informacijskih potreb za izobraževalne in raziskovalne

namene

OPOMBA 1: Vključene so knjižnice visokošolskih izobraževalnih ustanov in splošne (znanstvene) knjižnice.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.1.1]
3.2
dostop
možnost dostopa in uporabe storitve, prostorov in opreme
3.3
dostopnost
enostavnost dostopa in uporabe storitve ali prostorov in opreme
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.2]
3.4
aktivni uporabnik

registrirani uporabnik, ki je v poročevalskem obdobju obiskal knjižnico ali uporabil knjižnično opremo

ali storitve

OPOMBA 1: Uporaba elektronskih storitev knjižnice je lahko vključena, če je mogoče identificirati elektronsko rabo in virtualne

obiske posameznega uporabnika oziroma če je podatke mogoče pridobiti z raziskavami.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.3]
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
3.5
anekdotski dokaz

dokaz, ki temelji na anekdoti ali zgodbi in je pridobljen naključno, neformalno, na podlagi osebnega

opazovanja ali izkušenj in ni preizkušen v praksi
3.6
razpoložljivost

stopnja, do katere so vsebine, dokumenti, prostori in oprema ali storitve, ki jih knjižnica zagotavlja,

uporabnikom dejansko na voljo takrat, ko jih zahtevajo
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.6]
3.7
korist
koristen ali dober učinek ali nekaj, kar je v pomoč
3.8
merjenje potrošnikovega presežka

v denarju izražena dodana vrednost, s katero potrošnik oceni vrednost izdelka ali storitve nad njegovo

nabavno ceno
3.9
kontingenčno vrednotenje

metoda za ocenjevanje tržne vrednosti nepridobitnih organizacij ali družbeno koristnih projektov, pri

kateri se podatki zbirajo z anketiranjem potencialnih uporabnikov, npr., koliko bi bili pripravljeni plačati

v zameno za to, da jim je določena dobrina na voljo (pripravljenost na plačilo), oziroma za kakšen znesek

bi se ji bili pripravljeni odreči (pripravljenost na sprejetje)

OPOMBA 1: Ta metoda se uporablja npr. pri varovanju okolja in zdravstveni oskrbi.

3.10
analiza stroškov in koristi

proces, ki ocenjuje razmerje med stroški podjetja in denarno vrednostjo nastale koristi

3.11
tehnika kritičnih dogodkov
CIT

raziskovalni pristop, s katerim je mogoče pridobiti najbolj nepozabne spomine na dogodek ali izkušnjo

OPOMBA 1: Tehnika kritičnih dogodkov se lahko uporablja pri individualnih intervjujih, intervjujih fokusnih skupin ali raziskavah.

3.12
kulturna ekonomija

vrsta ekonomije, ki preučuje povezavo med kulturo in njenimi ekonomskimi učinki ter raziskuje pojav

kulture kot ekonomskega dejavnika
3.13
podatkovno rudarjenje

proces avtomatiziranega, računalniško podprtega analiziranja kvantitativnih podatkov za odkrivanje

potencialno zanimivih, uporabnih vzorcev ter povzemanje potencialnih povezav in vplivov

3.14
digitalizacija
postopek pretvarjanja analognega gradiva v digitalno obliko

OPOMBA 1: Digitalizacija dokumenta iz knjižnične zbirke za dobavo uporabniku ali instituciji je izključena.

OPOMBA 2: Digitalizacija za namene ohranjanja je vključena.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
OPOMBA 3: Množična digitalizacija je vključena.

OPOMBA 4: Nakup elektronskih kopij gradiva za zamenjavo tiskanih kopij gradiva je izključen.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.3.15]
3.15
dokument

zapisana informacija ali materialni objekt, ki se lahko obravnava kot enota v dokumentacijskem procesu

OPOMBA1: Dokumenti se lahko razlikujejo po svoji fizični obliki in značilnostih.
[vir: ISO 5127:2001, definicija 1.2.2]
3.16
ekonomski vpliv

vpliv politike, institucije, programa ali dogodka na ekonomijo določenega območja

OPOMBA 1: Ekonomski vpliv se navadno opisuje z izrazi za spremembe v gospodarski rasti (rezultati dela ali dodana vrednost)

in povezanimi spremembami v zaposlovanju (zaposlitev) in dohodkih (plače).
3.17
uspešnost
mera za ugotavljanje stopnje doseganja zastavljenih ciljev

OPOMBA 1: Aktivnost je uspešna, kadar v največji možni meri dosega pričakovane rezultate.

[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.15]
3.18
učinkovitost

mera za ugotavljanje izkoristka vloženih virov, potrebnih za uresničitev danega cilja

OPOMBA 1: Aktivnost je učinkovita, če zmanjša uporabo virov do najmanjše možne mere ali daje boljše rezultate z uporabo

enakih virov.
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.16]
3.19
zbirka elektronskih virov

vsi viri v knjižnični zbirki, ki so v elektronski obliki, tako izvorno digitalni kot tudi digitalizirani

OPOMBA 1: Zbirka elektronskih virov vključuje podatkovne zbirke, elektronske serijske publikacije in digitalne dokumente.

Prosto dostopni viri na internetu, ki jih je knjižnica katalogizirala v svojem online katalogu ali v podatkovni zbirki,

naj se štejejo ločeno.

OPOMBA 2: Viri so lahko v omrežju, nameščeni na samostojnih računalniških delovnih postajah ali shranjeni na fizičnih

nosilcih.
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.3.21]
3.20
elektronska storitev

storitev knjižnice, dostavljena na elektronski način z lokalnih strežnikov ali zagotovljena preko omrežij

OPOMBA 1: Elektronske storitve knjižnice vključujejo online katalog, spletno mesto knjižnice, zbirko elektronskih virov,

elektronsko izposojo, elektronsko dostavo dokumentov (posredovano), elektronske referenčne storitve,

usposabljanje uporabnikov z uporabo elektronskih sredstev, storitve za mobilne naprave, storitve za interaktivno

uporabo (vključno s storitvami na družbenih omrežjih) ter dostop do interneta, ki ga zagotavlja knjižnica.

OPOMBA 2: Rezervacije fizičnih storitev knjižnice (na primer sob ali vodenih ogledov knjižnice) preko elektronskih sredstev

niso vključene.
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.8]
3.21
vrednotenje

proces ocenjevanja uspešnosti, učinkovitosti, koristnosti in ustreznosti storitve ali opreme in

pripomočkov
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.19]
3.22
dogodek

predhodno dogovorjena aktivnost s kulturnim, izobraževalnim, socialnim, političnim, poučevalnim ali

kakim drugim namenom

OPOMBA 1: Vključeni so samo dogodki, ki jih organizira knjižnica sama ali v sodelovanju z drugimi institucijami, znotraj ali

zunaj knjižničnih prostorov. Dogodki, ki se odvijajo v knjižnici, vendar jih organizirajo zunanje institucije brez

sodelovanja knjižnice, so izključeni.
OPOMBA 2: Usposabljanja uporabnikov in vodeni ogledi knjižnice so izključeni.

OPOMBA 3: Tekoči programi knjižnice so vključeni. Vsaka izvedba programa se šteje za en dogodek.

OPOMBA 4: Virtualni dogodki so vključeni.
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.9]
3.23
intervju s fokusno skupino
razprava s fokusno skupino

intervju s fokusno skupino v obliki vodene razprave manjše skupine izbranih udeležencev o temah, ki

jih predstavi moderator
3.24
namen
želeno stanje zadev, ki naj bi ga dosegli z izvajanjem dogovorjenih politik
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.24]
3.25
vpliv

razlika ali sprememba v vedenju posameznika ali družbe, ki izhaja iz stika s storitvami knjižnice

OPOMBA 1: Sprememba je lahko opredmetena ali neopredmetena.
3.26
informacijska pismenost

zmožnost opredelitve informacijskih potreb, prepoznavanja, pridobivanja, vrednotenja in uspešne

uporabe informacij

OPOMBA 1: Za informacijsko pismenost je bistvenega pomena pismenost kot zmožnost branja, pisanja in razumevanja

vsakdanjih sporočil.

OPOMBA 2: Vključene so veščine za uporabo informacijske tehnologije za dostop in pridobivanje informacij.

3.27
informacijsko vprašanje
neposredna in/ali administrativna poizvedba, dostavljena knjižničnemu osebju

OPOMBA 1: Vključena so na primer vprašanja o lokaciji osebja in storitev, vprašanja o odpiralnih časih in vpisnih postopkih ter

vprašanja o ravnanju z opremo, kot so tiskalniki ali računalniški terminali.
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015

OPOMBA 2: Vprašanje se lahko posreduje osebno ali preko telefona, običajne pošte, faksa ali elektronskih medijev (preko

elektronske pošte, spletnega mesta knjižnice ali preko omrežnih komunikacijskih mehanizmov).

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.13]
3.28
vloženi vir

prispevek virov v podporo knjižnici (kot so finančna sredstva, knjižnično osebje, knjižnične zbirke,

prostor, oprema)
3.29
internetni dostop

internetna povezava, ki jo vzpostavi uporabnik z računalniške delovne postaje v lasti knjižnice ali s

svojega računalnika v prostorih knjižnice preko računalniškega omrežja knjižnice

OPOMBA1: Internetni dostopi se lahko štejejo samo, kadar se uporabniki registrirajo ali pa se pri dostopu do interneta preveri

njihova istovetnost.

OPOMBA 2: Internetni dostop preko uporabnikovega lastnega računalnika (na primer prenosnika ali dlančnika), vzpostavljen

preko brezžične povezave knjižnice v prostorih knjižnice, naj se šteje in o njem poroča ločeno.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.17]
3.30
intervju

tehnika ustnega spraševanja, s katero se izvede prenos informacij od intervjuvanca do intervjuvarja

oziroma raziskovalca

OPOMBA1: Ta tehnika pridobi neposredne odgovore na vprašanja, v nasprotju z anketnimi vprašalniki in samoocenjevanjem

(uporabnikovi zapiski).

OPOMBA 2: Intervjuji lahko potekajo v obliki dialoga med dvema osebama ali pa kot skupinski intervjuji, odvisno od števila

intervjuvancev.

OPOMBA 3: Intervjuji so lahko strukturirani, polstrukturirani ali nestrukturirani.

OPOMBA 4: Kadar se polstrukturirani in nestrukturirani intervjuji uporabljajo pri skupini intervjuvancev, se opisujejo kot intervjuji

fokusnih skupin ali skupinske razprave.
3.31
knjižnica

organizacija ali del organizacije, katere osrednji namen je zagotavljati dostop do uporabe informacijskih

virov, storitev in pripomočkov, ki so potrebni za zadovoljevanje informacijskih, raziskovalnih,

izobraževalnih, kulturnih ali rekreacijskih potreb njenih uporabnikov

OPOMBA 1: Zagotavljanje zahtevanih informacijskih virov je mogoče doseči z gradnjo in vzdrževanjem zbirke in/ali z

organizacijo dostopa do informacijskih virov.

OPOMBA 2: To so osnovne zahteve za knjižnico in ne izključujejo kakšnih dodatnih virov in storitev, ki se pridružujejo njenemu

glavnemu namenu.
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.1.6]
3.32
knjižnična zbirka
vsi dokumenti, ki jih knjižnica nudi svojim uporabnikom

OPOMBA 1: Zajeti so informacijski viri, ki so dostopni lokalno, in dislocirani viri, za katere si je knjižnica pridobila pravice

dostopa.

OPOMBA 2: Pravice dostopa si knjižnica lahko pridobi sama, preko konzorcijev ali preko zunanjega financiranja.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16439 : 2015

OPOMBA 3: Pridobivanje gradiva je treba razumeti kot namenski izbor dokumentov, zagotovitev pravic dostopa do

dokumentov ter njihovo vključitev v online katalog ali drugo podatkovno zbirko knjižnice. Medknjižnična izposoja

in dostava dokumentov nista vključeni.

OPOMBA 4: Povezave z internetnimi viri, za katere si knjižnica ni zagotovila pravic dostopa s pravnim sporazumom (npr.

pravice do obveznega izvoda primerkov), licenco ali drugim pogodbenim in/ali vzajemnim sporazumom, niso

vključene. Internetni viri s prostim dostopom, ki jih je knjižnica katalogizirala v online katalogu knjižnice ali

podatkovni zbirki, naj se štejejo ločeno.

OPOMBA 5: Dokumenti v institucionalnem repozitoriju niso vključeni, vendar naj se štejejo ločeno, kadar knjižnica sodeluje pri

zbiranju enot in/ali upravljanju repozitorija.
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.3.28]
3.33
knjižnica visokošolske izobraževalne ustanove

knjižnica, katere primarna funkcija je namenjena študentom ter akademskemu in strokovnemu osebju

na univerzah ter drugih institucijah izobraževanja na tretji (terciarni) in višjih ravneh

OPOMBA 1: Knjižnica lahko služi tudi splošni javnosti.
[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.1.7]
3.34
spletno mesto knjižnice

enotna domena na internetu, sestavljena iz vrste spletnih strani, ki jih objavlja knjižnica, da bi

zagotavljala dostop do storitev in virov knjižnice

OPOMBA 1: Strani spletnega mesta so navadno med seboj povezane z uporabo hipertekstnih povezav.

OPOMBA 2: Izključeni so dokumenti, ki ustrezajo definiciji zbirke elektronskih virov ali internetnih virov s prostim dostopom, do

katerih se je mogoče povezati s spletnega mesta knjižnice.

OPOMBA 3: Izključene so spletne storitve na domeni knjižnice, katerih operativnost zagotavljajo druge organizacije.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.2.18]
3.35
longitudinalna študija

raziskava, izvedena dvakrat ali več v daljšem časovnem obdobju; uporabi se enaka ali podobna raziskovalna

metoda na isti populaciji, da se izmerijo spremembe v vzorcih uporabe, dojemanja, obnašanja itd.

3.36
poslanstvo

izjava, ki jo odobrijo pristojni organi, v kateri so opredeljeni cilji knjižnice in ponudba njenih storitev ter

razvoj proizvodov
[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.33]
3.37
nacionalna knjižnica

knjižnica, ki je odgovorna za pridobivanje in ohranjanje izvodov vsega pomembnega knjižničnega

gradiva v državi, v kateri je locirana

OPOMBA 1: Nacionalna knjižnica navadno izvaja eno ali vse naslednje funkcije: izdeluje nacionalno bibliografijo, hrani in

posodablja obširno in reprezentativno zbirko tuje literature, vključno z gradivom, ki se nanaša na državo, deluje

kot nacionalni bibliografski informacijski center, vzdržuje vzajemne kataloge, nadzoruje upravljanje drugih knjižnic

in/ali spodbuja sodelovanje med njimi, usmerja raziskovalne in razvojne storitve itd.

OPOMBA 2: Definicija "nacionalna knjižnica" dopušča več kot eno nacionalno knjižnico v eni državi.

[vir: ISO 2789:2013, definicija 2.1.9]
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SIST ISO 16439 : 2015
3.38
skupinski individualni intervju

skupinski intervju brez medsebojne komunikacije članov skupine; vsak član zapiše odgovore na

moderatorjeva vprašanja, nato pa vsak posamezni član komentira odgovore
3.39
neuporabnik

oseba, ki spada k določeni populaciji potencialnih uporabnikov knjižnice, vendar ne uporablja fizičnih

in/ali elektronskih storitev te knjižnice
OPOMBA 1: Nekdanji uporabniki knjižnice so vključeni.
3.40
cilj

usmerjeni cilj aktivnosti, ki z uresničitvijo prispeva k doseganju cilja organizacije

[vir: ISO 11620:–, definicija 3.34]
3.41
opazovanje
metoda zbiranja
...

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