Equipment for harvesting -- Forage harvesters

This document specifies terms and definitions related to forage harvesters and their component parts. This document identifies dimensions and other characteristics aimed at allowing comparison of operations of the machines and to improve communication among engineers and researchers, in association with ISOÂ 8909-2, which lays down methods of measuring characteristics and performance requirements for the term defined.

Matériel de récolte -- Récolteuses-hacheuses-chargeuses de fourrage

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Apr-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
19-Mar-2021
Completion Date
19-Mar-2021
Ref Project

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Effective Date
23-Apr-2020

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8909-1
Second edition
2021-04
Equipment for harvesting — Forage
harvesters —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Matériel de récolte — Récolteuses-hacheuses-chargeuses de
fourrage —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to characteristics of functional components.................................................................................... 2

5 Terms related to measurement of machine and functional component characteristics ..........4

6 Terms related to crop ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Terms related to performance ............................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/Technical Committee TC 23, Tractors and machinery for agriculture

and forestry, Subcommittee SC 7, Equipment for harvesting and conservation.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8909-1:1994), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— adaptation of designation of some terms;
— modifications of some definitions.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8909 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Equipment for harvesting — Forage harvesters —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document specifies terms and definitions related to forage harvesters and their component parts.

This document identifies dimensions and other characteristics aimed at allowing comparison of

operations of the machines and to improve communication among engineers and researchers, in

association with ISO 8909-2, which lays down methods of measuring characteristics and performance

requirements for the term defined.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
forage harvester

agricultural machine used to harvest or gather the crop, cut the crop into short parallel lengths and to

deliver the chopped crop into containers or separate vehicles

Note 1 to entry: Typical forage crops harvested are grasses, legumes, mixtures and/or row crops such as maize

(corn) and sorghum. The chopped crop may be preserved in storage by ensiling or dehydrating, or it may be fed

directly to livestock.

Note 2 to entry: The forage harvester may harvest the crop directly by cutting it at full width or from single or

multiple rows, or by picking it up from swaths or windrows. Forage harvesters may be tractor-mounted, towed

or self-propelled.
3.1.1
precision-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) which uses a feeding mechanism consisting of four or more feed rolls to partially

orient and advance the crop at a consistent rate into the cutting or shearing mechanism

Note 1 to entry: This type of forage harvester is capable of producing the shortest and most uniformly cut

particles.
3.1.2
semi-precision-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) which uses a feeding mechanism consisting of fewer than four feed rolls or other

means such as an auger to advance the crop to the cutting or shearing mechanism

Note 1 to entry: Mean particle lengths and particle uniformity are intermediate between those obtained with

precision-cut and random-cut forage harvesters. This type of forage harvester includes double-chop and multi-

chop machines.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
3.1.3
random-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) without a distinct feeding mechanism usually employing flails to impact-cut and

chop the standing crop or pre-cut crop directly into shorter pieces

Note 1 to entry: This type of forage harvester usually produces the longest mean particle lengths, and the least

uniformly cut particles.
4 Terms related to characteristics of functional components
4.1
crop-gathering header

device, usually detachable, used to gather the crop into the forage harvester (3.1)

4.1.1
row crop header
device used to cut off and gather row crops, usually near ground level
4.1.2
maize picker header
device used to harvest and gather only ears of maize (corn)
4.1.3
pickup header
device for picking up previously cut crop
Note 1 to entry: The crop may be in a swath or windrow.
4.1.4
direct-cut header

device capable of cutting unharvested crop across its full width and conveying the cut crop directly

into the forage harvester (3.1)
4.2
header cutting mechanism
device used on the header to cut off the standing crop from its root system
4.2.1
cutterbar

cutting device which uses one or two reciprocating components (e.g. sickle, knife) to cut off the

standing crop
4.2.2
rotary impact cutter

rotary cutting device using high-velocity knives driven about a vertical or horizontal axis to cut off the

unsupported standing crop by impact alone
4.2.2.1
disc cutter

multiple disc mechanism using two or more blades per disc driven about vertical axes from below at

sufficiently high rotational frequencies to achieve impact cutting
4.2.2.2
drum cutter

device using multiple large discs each with a central drum and driven about vertical axes from above or

below at sufficiently high rotational frequencies to achieve impact cutting

Note 1 to entry: Each disc has at least two knife blades which protrude outwards from beneath the peripheral edge.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
4.2.2.3
flail cutter

device using multiple, radially attached blades that are mounted to pivot on a horizontal rotor

Note 1 to entry: Each blade has a transversely cutting edge to cut off crop by impact.

Note 2 to entry: The rotor is positioned transverse to the direction of travel.
4.2.3
rotary disc
disc on the head row unit used to shear off the crop

Note 1 to entry: There are two systems: the one-disc rotary knife system requires a stationary knife against

which to shear the crop, and the two-disc rotary knife system requires either a stationary knife or discs that are

overlapped and rotated in opposite directions such that the crop is sheared off at the forward intersection of the

two disc peripheries.
4.2.4
oscillating scissor knife

device consisting of one pivoting knife with two stationary knives per row crop head row unit

Note 1 to entry: The knife reciprocates in a semi-circular arc and cuts the crop off against one of two

stationary knives.
4.2.5
unidirectional cutterbar

device for cutting off stalks comprising a horizontally arranged chain or belt carrying protrusions

which guide and shear the stalks against spaced stationary supports
4.3
feedroll

one or more cylindrical rolls, generally with protrusions or flutes, used to gather, compress and advance

the crop into the cutterhead (4.4)
4.4
cutterhead
cutting rotor

devices intended to cut the crop into short lengths with reasonable consistency within a range of

optional settings
4.4.1
cylinder cutterhead

knives on cylindrical mountings such that the cutting edges of the knives are essentially parallel to the

axis of rotation
4.4.2
flywheel cutterhead

knives mounted essentially radially with the cutting edges describing a plane perpendicular to the axis

of rotation
4.5
stationary knife
shear bar

fixed plate providing a stationary edge against which the cutterhead knives shear the crop

4.6
recutter screen

semi-cylindrical band or plate with holes mounted concentric to a cylinder cutterhead (4.4.1), which

starts downstream of the stationary knife (4.5) and continues around the discharge opening

Note 1 to entry: The chopped crop is recut by the cutterhead knives as it passes through the screen holes.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: The recutter screen is used primarily to reduce particle lengths that are substantially beyond

the theoretical length of cut.
4.7
smasher impact attachments

protrusions attached either to the cutterhead knives or blower paddles, and/or to the cutterhead or

blower housing band used primarily to break whole grains or maize (corn) kernels into smaller pieces

either by impact or by shearing
4.8
crop processor

driven pair of opposing, counter-rotating rolls or discs placed in the chopped crop stream flow to crush

whole grains or kernels into smaller pieces
4.9
inertial chamber

chamber with special bottom mounted in the lower part of the cutterhead housing, into which chopped

material (maize) is directed and then inertially reversed to the cutterhead housing for re-chopping

4.10
random‐cut flail chopping rotor

multiple flails with transverse cutting edges at their tips, pivotably attached to a rotor

positioned transversely to the direction of travel and parallel to the ground

Note 1 to entry: The swath, windrow or standing crop is cut directly by the flail blades into shorter random

lengths by impact cutting or cutting against an adjustable element (stationary knife) on the chopping rotor

periphery.
4.11
crop delivery device

mechanism used to propel the chopped crop from the forage harvester through a converging duct or

chute to the transport container
4.11.1
cylinder impeller blower

device consisting of multiple rows of radial, fixed or free-swinging paddles mounted on a transverse

rotor, where the crop is fed essentially tangentially to the rotor
4.11.2
flywheel impeller blower

device generally using one row of paddles mounted essentially radially to the axis of rotation, in which

the crop is fed into the blower essentially parallel to
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8909-1
Second edition
Equipment for harvesting — Forage
harvesters —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Matériel de récolte — Récolteuses-hacheuses-chargeuses de
fourrage —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to characteristics of functional components.................................................................................... 2

5 Terms related to measurement of machine and functional component characteristics ..........4

6 Terms related to crop ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Terms related to performance ............................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/Technical Committee TC 23, Tractors and machinery for agriculture

and forestry, Subcommittee SC 7, Equipment for harvesting and conservation.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8909-1:1994), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— adaptation of designation of some terms;
— modifications of some definitions.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8909 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
Equipment for harvesting — Forage harvesters —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document specifies terms and definitions related to forage harvesters and their component parts.

This document identifies dimensions and other characteristics aimed at allowing comparison of

operations of the machines and to improve communication among engineers and researchers, in

association with ISO 8909-2, which lays down methods of measuring characteristics and performance

requirements for the term defined.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
forage harvester

agricultural machine used to harvest or gather the crop, cut the crop into short parallel lengths and to

deliver the chopped crop into containers or separate vehicles

Note 1 to entry: Typical forage crops harvested are grasses, legumes, mixtures and/or row crops such as maize

(corn) and sorghum. The chopped crop may be preserved in storage by ensiling or dehydrating, or it may be fed

directly to livestock.

Note 2 to entry: The forage harvester may harvest the crop directly by cutting it at full width or from single or

multiple rows, or by picking it up from swaths or windrows. Forage harvesters may be tractor-mounted, towed

or self-propelled.
3.1.1
precision-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) which uses a feeding mechanism consisting of four or more feed rolls to partially

orient and advance the crop at a consistent rate into the cutting or shearing mechanism

Note 1 to entry: This type of forage harvester is capable of producing the shortest and most uniformly cut

particles.
3.1.2
semi-precision-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) which uses a feeding mechanism consisting of fewer than four feed rolls or other

means such as an auger to advance the crop to the cutting or shearing mechanism

Note 1 to entry: Mean particle lengths and particle uniformity are intermediate between those obtained with

precision-cut and random-cut forage harvesters. This type of forage harvester includes double-chop and multi-

chop machines.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
3.1.3
random-cut forage harvester

forage harvester (3.1) without a distinct feeding mechanism usually employing flails to impact-cut and

chop the standing crop or pre-cut crop directly into shorter pieces

Note 1 to entry: This type of forage harvester usually produces the longest mean particle lengths, and the least

uniformly cut particles.
4 Terms related to characteristics of functional components
4.1
crop-gathering header

device, usually detachable, used to gather the crop into the forage harvester (3.1)

4.1.1
row crop header
device used to cut off and gather row crops, usually near ground level
4.1.2
maize picker header
device used to harvest and gather only ears of maize (corn)
4.1.3
pickup header
device for picking up previously cut crop
Note 1 to entry: The crop may be in a swath or windrow.
4.1.4
direct-cut header

device capable of cutting unharvested crop across its full width and conveying the cut crop directly

into the forage harvester (3.1)
4.2
header cutting mechanism
device used on the header to cut off the standing crop from its root system
4.2.1
cutterbar

cutting device which uses one or two reciprocating components (e.g. sickle, knife) to cut off the

standing crop
4.2.2
rotary impact cutter

rotary cutting device using high-velocity knives driven about a vertical or horizontal axis to cut off the

unsupported standing crop by impact alone
4.2.2.1
disc cutter

multiple disc mechanism using two or more blades per disc driven about vertical axes from below at

sufficiently high rotational frequencies to achieve impact cutting
4.2.2.2
drum cutter

device using multiple large discs each with a central drum and driven about vertical axes from above or

below at sufficiently high rotational frequencies to achieve impact cutting

Note 1 to entry: Each disc has at least two knife blades which protrude outwards from beneath the peripheral edge.

2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)
4.2.2.3
flail cutter

device using multiple, radially attached blades that are mounted to pivot on a horizontal rotor

Note 1 to entry: Each blade has a transversely cutting edge to cut off crop by impact.

Note 2 to entry: The rotor is positioned transverse to the direction of travel.
4.2.3
rotary disc
disc on the head row unit used to shear off the crop

Note 1 to entry: There are two systems: the one-disc rotary knife system requires a stationary knife against

which to shear the crop, and the two-disc rotary knife system requires either a stationary knife or discs that are

overlapped and rotated in opposite directions such that the crop is sheared off at the forward intersection of the

two disc peripheries.
4.2.4
oscillating scissor knife

device consisting of one pivoting knife with two stationary knives per row crop head row unit

Note 1 to entry: The knife reciprocates in a semi-circular arc and cuts the crop off against one of two

stationary knives.
4.2.5
unidirectional cutterbar

device for cutting off stalks comprising a horizontally arranged chain or belt carrying protrusions

which guide and shear the stalks against spaced stationary supports
4.3
feedroll

one or more cylindrical rolls, generally with protrusions or flutes, used to gather, compress and advance

the crop into the cutterhead (4.4)
4.4
cutterhead
cutting rotor

devices intended to cut the crop into short lengths with reasonable consistency within a range of

optional settings
4.4.1
cylinder cutterhead

knives on cylindrical mountings such that the cutting edges of the knives are essentially parallel to the

axis of rotation
4.4.2
flywheel cutterhead

knives mounted essentially radially with the cutting edges describing a plane perpendicular to the axis

of rotation
4.5
stationary knife
shear bar

fixed plate providing a stationary edge against which the cutterhead knives shear the crop

4.6
recutter screen

semi-cylindrical band or plate with holes mounted concentric to a cylinder cutterhead (4.4.1), which

starts downstream of the stationary knife (4.5) and continues around the discharge opening

Note 1 to entry: The chopped crop is recut by the cutterhead knives as it passes through the screen holes.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 8909-1:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: The recutter screen is used primarily to reduce particle lengths that are substantially beyond

the theoretical length of cut.
4.7
smasher impact attachments

protrusions attached either to the cutterhead knives or blower paddles, and/or to the cutterhead or

blower housing band used primarily to break whole grains or maize (corn) kernels into smaller pieces

either by impact or by shearing
4.8
crop processor

driven pair of opposing, counter-rotating rolls or discs placed in the chopped crop stream flow to crush

whole grains or kernels into smaller pieces
4.9
inertial chamber

chamber with special bottom mounted in the lower part of the cutterhead housing, into which chopped

material (maize) is directed and then inertially reversed to the cutterhead housing for re-chopping

4.10
random‐cut flail chopping rotor

multiple flails with transverse cutting edges at their tips, pivotably attached to a rotor

positioned transversely to the direction of travel and parallel to the ground

Note 1 to entry: The swath, windrow or standing crop is cut directly by the flail blades into shorter random

lengths by impact cutting or cutting against an adjustable element (stationary knife) on the chopping rotor

periphery.
4.11
crop delivery device

mechanism used to propel the chopped crop from the forage harvester through a converging duct or

chute to the transport container
4.11.1
cylinder impeller blower

device consisting of multiple rows of radial, fixed or free-swinging paddles mounted on a transverse

rotor, where the crop is fed essentially tangentially to the rotor
4.11.2
flywheel impell
...

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